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is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.
In 2009, the structure of the city has grown quite the same way, with major axes that mostly converge to the center.
Beirut - Social Development
They proposed to link Beirut to the cities that were near, such as Tripoli, Saïda and Damascus.
Beirut - East-West Axis and Peripheral Ring Road
They reinforced an east-west major axis and organized a peripheral road, in order to clear the port and the old town, which were stuck with traffic.
Beirut - Programmatic Zoning
Finally, they defined several areas with a system of separation of activities and social classes.
Beirut Urban Grain
The pattern of Beirut is rather complex. Two main characteristics are in a kind of urbanization conflict. The more Arabic and the imported Western pattern. Both have their own constitution and way to function.
“…a historical condition which shapes a certain structure of the world economy such in favor of some countries to the dretiment of others and limit the development possibilities of the subordinate economies…” (Dos Santos 1971. Cited in Ferraro 2008 )
Dependency Theory - Three points in common within the theory framework:
1. Center – periphery = dominant – dependent (satellite). Dominant = OECD Dependent: Latin America – Asia – Africa 2. External forces: multinationals, foreign assistance. 3. Dynamic dependency relation: reinforce – intensified.