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Level 18

Adaptations


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Desert animals
These have adapted to save water and keep cool
Large surface area to volume ratio
This allows more body heat to be lost so the animals do not over heat
Small amounts of concentrated urine
This allows animals to avoid losing lots of water
Little sweat
This allows animals to avoid losing lots of water, especially when exercising
Camels
These animals can tolerate big changes in body temperature
Kangaroo rats
These animals hide in burrows to keep themselves cool
Thin layers of fat and fur
These allow desert animals to keep cool, camels keep all their fat in their hump and only have fur on the top of their backs
Camouflaged
All animals are adapted to be this, in every environment, to avoid predators or be able to sneak up on pray
Arctic animals
These have adapted to reduce heat loss
Small surface area to volume ratio
Animals living in the Arctic have a compact shape to keep their surface area to a minimum, this reduces heat loss
Insulated
Arctic animals have thick layer of blubber to keep them warm and act like an energy store as well as thick hairy coats and greasy fur that sheds water (to avoid heat loss due to evaporation)
Desert plants
These are adapted to having little water
Spines
These are found on cacti to reduce the surface area to volume ratio and water loss of plants that live in the desert
Water storage tissue
Cacti has this which causes them to have a very thick stem to avoid water loss
Maximising water absorption
Some cacti have shallow but extensive roots to absorb water quickly over a large area, others have deep roots that access underground water
Deterring predators
Some animals have adaptation to do this. There are various special features used by animals and plants to help them against being eaten
Armour
This is an example of something that deterers predators. Examples of this are roses have thorns, cacti have spines and tortoises have shells
Poisons
This is an example of something that deterers predators. Examples of this are bees and poison ivy
Warning colours
This is an example of something that deterers predators. Examples of this are wasps
Micro-organisms
These a huge range of adaptations to be able to survive in a wide range of environments
Extremophiles
These are micro-organisms that have adapted to live in seriously extreme conditions such as super hot volcano vents, very salty lakes or high pressure on the sea beds