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Level 29

Evolution


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Theory of evolution
More than three billion years ago, life began on Earth as a simple organism from which all the more complex organisms evolved from
Organisms
They are all related, if only distantly
Plant characteristics
They make their own food and are fixed to the ground
Animal characteristics
They move around the place and cannot make their own food
Micro-organism characteristics
They are different to plants and animals
Recent common ancestor
Species with similar characteristiccs have this, they are closely related, they tend to look alike and live in the same or similar habitats. the more recent this is the closer the species are related
Evolutionary trees
These show common ancestors and relationships between organisms
Competition
If we see organisms in the same environment with similar characteristics they may be in competition
Predator-prey relationships
These can be seen through differences in organisms within the same environment
Natural selection
This shows how evolution occurs. Charles Darwin came up with the idea. Individual characteristics that make an animal better adapted to their environment gives them a better chance of survival and so
Genes
The genes responsible for the success of a particular animal are more likely to be passed down the generation until they become part of the natural characteristics of the species
Mutation
This is a change in an organisms DNA and this can cause evolution to happen
Disagreements with Darwin
It went against religious beliefs about the earth's development, he couldn't explain it properly as genes and mutations were not discovered until 50 years later and there was not enough evidence
Larmarck
He thought that if a characteristic was used a lot by an organism then it would become more developed during its lifetime and then these characteristics would be passed onto the next generation. His idea was rejected because experiments did not support his idea
Proof
The way to test if a hypothesis is correct or incorrect you need to find this for that hypothesis and not something that disproves your idea