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Fighting disease


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Pathogens
These are micro-organisms that cause disease
Infectious disease
This is caused by pathogens that spread easily
Bacteria
They are very small living cells and they are about 1/100th the size of your body cells. They can reproduce rapidly inside your body. This makes you feels ill because they produce toxins (poisons)
Viruses
They are not cells, they are 1/100th the size of a bacterium. They replicate themselves by invading your cells and using the materials inside your cell to produce copies of themselves.
Immune system
This is your sophisticated defence against harmful micro-organisms. If something unwanted gets in your body this will try and defeat it. It is mainly made up of white blood cells
Skin, hair and mucus
These are the three main things that stop nasty things getting inside your body
Platelets
These help your blood to clot quickly to try and prevent micro-organisms getting into your body via cuts
White blood cells
These are constantly patrolling the inside of your body. They have three lines of attack.
Ingestion
This is the white blood cell's first line of attack. It consist of the white blood cell engulfing the pathogen and breaking it down
Antibody production
This is the white blood cell's second line of attack. It is caused when the white blood cell detects a pathogen. They are a form of protein and these lock onto the invading pathogen and kills them. They are type specific so only work on that one pathogen
Antigens
These are unique molecules that every invading cell has on its surface
Immunity
A person has this if they have memory cells that protect them against a certain pathogen
Antitoxin production
This is the white blood cell's third line of attack. It allows the white blood cells to counteract the toxins produced by invading bacteria