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Immune Cells and Innate Immunity


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Macrophages
are phagocytic cells involved in antigen presentation and activation of bacteriocidal mechanisms
Dendritic cells
are phagocytic cells involved in antigen presenting cells that bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immunity
Neutrophils
are the first responding cells to inflam. capable of phagocytosing opsonised antigens and degranulating anti-microbial proteins
Eosinophils
are granulocytes that kill antibody-coated parasites and viruses by releasing cationic degrading enzymes
Basophils
are granulocytes, similar to mast cells, that release many inflammatory mediators often in response to allergen stimulation
Mast cells
are granulocytes, similar to basophils, that release inflam. mediators (eg. histamine, heparin) particularly in response to allergen stimulation
Natural killer cells
are cytotoxic lymphocytes that detect MHC of viral infected or tumour cells and release cytokines that cause lysis/apoptosis of infected cells.
Small Lymphocytes
are the adaptive immune system cells (B and T cells)
Professional
phagocytes include macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils, dendritic cells and mast cells which are better (=more receptors) at engulfing foreign material than "non-professional" phagocytes.
Chronic granulomatous disease
a mutation in NADPH Oxidase gene means person's phagocytes cannot synth. superoxide (O2-) etc to degrade pathogens = more severe infections.
Intraepithelial lymphocytes
are T cells that recognise stress proteins of infected epithelial cells and respond by inducing apoptosis.
Peristalsis
is the coordinated rhythmic muscle contraction along GIT (and UT), preventing adherence and causing expulsion of the pathogen
Defensins
are a naturally occuring antibiotic peptides that insert into microbial membranes altering permeability and leading to death.
C5a
is a complement protein that recruits inflam. cells to an area by chemotaxis
Diapedesis
the passage of blood cells through intact walls of capillaries, typically accompanying inflammation.
C3b
is a complement protein that acts as an opsonin to aid phagocytosis (opsonisation)
C3a, C4a and C5a
are complement proteins that bind to mast cells and mediate the release of vasoactive substances (eg. histamines)
Membrane attack complex
proteins of the complement system bind as subunits and then polymerize to form a pore in the pathogen membrane = death due to osmotic pressure.
Oligoadenylate synthetase
synthesis is upregulated by IFNs to activate endonucleases to degrade viral RNA
Interferons
promote differentiation and maturation of DCs and also stimulate expression of MHC I proteins (increasing antigen presentation for NK cells)
TNFa, IL1 and IL6
are cytokines that induce secretion of Crp/MBL (=complement), mobilize neutrophils, mature dendritic cells and increase body temp.
C-reactive protein
is an inflam. protein that binds to phosphocholine (on dying cells) to activate complement system. It was the first PRR to be identified.
Toll-like receptors
of macrophages and DCs recognise PAMPs and recruit MyD88 adaptor protein to activate kinase cascade that increase transcription of inflam/immune genes.