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Bacterial Growth, Metabolism and Protein Secretion


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Group translocation
is the active transport of nutrients involving chemical alteration to cross cell membrane (eg. PTS system)
Siderophores
are secreted by bacteria to make soluble complexes of otherwise insoluble Fe3+ often stripping it from host proteins
Lag phase
infecting bacteria are initially depleted of ATP, enzymes, co-factors or ribosomes and so growth is delayed until these requirements are restored.
Exponential phase
bacteria grow and divide at maximum rate while nutrients are abundant and wastes minimal
Stationary phase
bacterial growth rate equals death rate as nutrients become limited and toxic wastes reach lethal levels.
Death phase
bacterial death rates are increased as nutrients are depleted and toxic wastes reach lethal levels.
Cell mass
can be measured as OD and indicate bacterial growth as intact cells deflect more light than lysed cells.
Superoxide dismutase and catalase
are possessed by aerobic bacteria in order to protect themselves against O2 derivatives.
Folic acid
cannot cross bacterial cell walls and must therefore be synthed intracellularly = target for abx (sulfonamides)
Peptidoglycan
is made of alternating chains of N-acetyl muramic acid (NAM) and N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG) with peptide crosslinks = target of abx (penicillin)
Topoisomerases and gyrases
remove supercoiling of circular bacterial chromosome = target of abx
Transcription and translation
are coupled in bacteria as transcribed mRNA directly enters ribosome for translation (as bacteria have no nucleus)
Membrane fusion protein
faciliates the type 1 sec-independent secretion of ions or proteins (w/ no amino terminal) without peri-plasmic intermediates by creating a continuous channel through membranes
NH-terminal is cleaved
in type 2 sec-dependent secretion of proteins (w/ amino terminal) giving a distinct periplasmic intermediate.
Injectisomes
enable type 3 sec-independent (Syc-dependent) secretion and injection of proteins (w/ NH-terminals) into cytosol of eukaryotic cells.
Type 4 secretion
is homologous to congugation machinery allowing sec-dependent transport of DNA and proteins into cytoplasm of other cells (secretion is similar to Type 2 pathway)
Toxin
secretion tends to occur by sec-mediated secretion into periplasmic space for folding and assembly leading to high periplasmic concentrations (=release by lysis)
Normal flora
may be beneficial by inhibiting pathogens, stimulating immune system and assisting in digestion/metabolism
Nosocomial
diseases originate in hospitals