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is the active transport of nutrients involving chemical alteration to cross cell membrane (eg. PTS system)
are secreted by bacteria to make soluble complexes of otherwise insoluble Fe3+ often stripping it from host proteins
infecting bacteria are initially depleted of ATP, enzymes, co-factors or ribosomes and so growth is delayed until these requirements are restored.
bacteria grow and divide at maximum rate while nutrients are abundant and wastes minimal
bacterial growth rate equals death rate as nutrients become limited and toxic wastes reach lethal levels.
bacterial death rates are increased as nutrients are depleted and toxic wastes reach lethal levels.
can be measured as OD and indicate bacterial growth as intact cells deflect more light than lysed cells.
Superoxide dismutase and catalase
are possessed by aerobic bacteria in order to protect themselves against O2 derivatives.
cannot cross bacterial cell walls and must therefore be synthed intracellularly = target for abx (sulfonamides)
is made of alternating chains of N-acetyl muramic acid (NAM) and N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG) with peptide crosslinks = target of abx (penicillin)
Topoisomerases and gyrases
remove supercoiling of circular bacterial chromosome = target of abx
Transcription and translation
are coupled in bacteria as transcribed mRNA directly enters ribosome for translation (as bacteria have no nucleus)
Membrane fusion protein
faciliates the type 1 sec-independent secretion of ions or proteins (w/ no amino terminal) without peri-plasmic intermediates by creating a continuous channel through membranes
NH-terminal is cleaved
in type 2 sec-dependent secretion of proteins (w/ amino terminal) giving a distinct periplasmic intermediate.
enable type 3 sec-independent (Syc-dependent) secretion and injection of proteins (w/ NH-terminals) into cytosol of eukaryotic cells.
Type 4 secretion
is homologous to congugation machinery allowing sec-dependent transport of DNA and proteins into cytoplasm of other cells (secretion is similar to Type 2 pathway)
secretion tends to occur by sec-mediated secretion into periplasmic space for folding and assembly leading to high periplasmic concentrations (=release by lysis)
may be beneficial by inhibiting pathogens, stimulating immune system and assisting in digestion/metabolism
diseases originate in hospitals