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may occur when bacteria directly uptake extracellular donor DNA from the environment
donor DNA is spontaneously and unintentionally packaged in bacteriophages that infects the recipient bacterium
donor bacterium transfers DNA (chromosomal or plasmid) to recipient by direct cell-cell mating. Ability of sexual interaction is mediated by fertility plasmids (F+ or F-)
occurs when incoming DNA from genetic transfer is very similar to recipient genome or in the case of repairing double strand breaks.
uses recombinases to insert donor DNA or mobile genetic elements (transposons, insertions or repeats) at specific, short DNA sequences or "sites".
are small, independent DNA molecules usually exchanged by transformation or congugation and often coding for specific properties, such as Abx resistance.
is the ultimate phylogeny molecule as it is ubiquitious in bacteria, functionally vital and thus selectively neutral (=slow to mutate), and is also easy to isolate/sequence.
can be used to find virulence genes, vaccine candidates, therapeutic candidates and phylogeny.
may arise when bacteria change to degrade, alter permeability to, increasingly efflux, alter binding site of, and synth. enzymes without affinity for the therapeutic agent.
bind to promoters to increase or decrease gene transcription
contain clusters of genes regulated by a single promoter (co-regulated) that are transcribed into polycistronic mRNA (co-transcribed), which may be cleaved before translation.
are collections of genes or operons under control of the same regulatory protein
binds to the allosteric site of an otherwise inactive repressor protein, activating the catalytic site to bind to DNA and prevent transcription (gene repression)
binds to the allosteric site of an otherwise active repressor protein, inactivating the catalytic site to free the DNA and thus allow transcription (gene activation/induction)
may be regulated by change in DNA sequence (mutation, amplification or rearrangement), number of mRNA transcripts and amount of active gene product (protein) produced.
produces coagulase, clumping factor, fibronectin-binding proteins, fibrinogen-binding proteins as virulence factors
produces hemolysins, V8 protease, hyaluronate lyase, lipase, capsular polysaccharide and enterotoxins B/C as virulence factors
produces enetertoxin A as a virulence factor.
are regions coding for virulence factors and are flanked by direct sequence repeats to promote recombination, mobility and horizontal gene transfer