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end something
government should make economic decisions
Sepoy Rebellion
an 1857 rebellion of Hindu and Muslim soldiers against the British in India b/c of pig and cow fat on ammunition
British East India Company
a joint stock company that controlled most of India for almost 200 years
Berlin Conference
1884 meeting that divided Africa between European countries
Boxer Rebellion
1900 Chinese boxers rebel against foreigners controlling trade in China
Bolivar’s Jamaica Letter
Letter urging the Creole elites to rise up and challenge mercantilist policies
capitalist class who own most of society's wealth and means of production.
Simon Bolivar
leader of Latin American independence movements
free markets; own your business
class struggle
Communist idea that working class fights against middle/upper class
French Declaration of the Rights of Man
French document from promising individual rights and liberties
control another country by force
Industrial Revolution
starts in England because of large coal deposits
"hands off" policy approach to economics
political philosophy focused on equality and freedom
government controls the means of production (and everything else in country)
Meiji Restoration
political program that brought modernization to Japan
working class
Social Darwinism
racist idea that white Europeans were genetically superior
Self-Strengthening Movement
Chinese policy to industrialize without using any outside help
spheres of influence
in China
Suez Canal
connects Mediterranean & Red Sea; in Egypt; British controlled
right to vote
organization that fights for the rights of workers in a particular job
open door policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China
Opium Wars
war between Great Britain and China, began as a conflict over the opium trade, ended with the Chinese granting "unequal treaties"
Panama Canal (1904)
The United States built the Panama Canal to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa
Reign of Terror
1793 to 1794, when Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed
start of the Industrial Revolution; moving from farms to factories
Karl Marx
co-wrote, Communist Manifesto with Fredrich Engles defining history as a "class struggle"
unequal treaties
treaties between China and the Western powers that favored the Western powers trade rights
American Revolution
major cause “no taxation without representation;” was aided by the French during the war; Declaration of Independence is written
7 years war/French and Indian War
American Revolution begins/ Adam Smith writes Wealth of Nations
French Revolution
Haitian independence led by Toussaint L'Ouverture
Congress of Vienna-European conference to settle territorial dispute after Napoleonic Wars
Independence in Latin America
1st opium war in China
European revolutions/Marx & Engles write Communist Manifesto
Taiping rebellion (1850- 1864)
The most destructive civil war before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing dynasty
Commodore Perry opens Japan
Sepoy Mutiny rebellion of Hindu and Muslim soldiers against the British in India b/c of pig and cow fat on ammunition
end of Russian serfdom / Italian unification
Emancipation Proclamation in US- slaves in southern states are freed
German unification- solidifying country
Berlin Conference- meeting for the division of Africa
Sino-Japanese war (1894-95)
war between China and Japan over Korean peninsula
Spanish-American War, USA acquires Philippines, Cuba, Guam, and Puerto Rico
Boer War- British take control of South Africa