Level 2
Level 1

Population change


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birth rate
the amount of babies born per thousand people per year
death rate
deaths per thousand people per year
natural decrease
where the death rate is higher than the birth rate
natural increase
where the birth rate is higher than the death rate
exponential growth
rapid increase - the population has done this is the past 100 years globally
Demographic transition model
This shows how the growth in population changes
Stage 1 characteristics
The birth rate is high and fluctuating, the death rate is also high and fluctuating, the total population is stable and there is no natural changes in the population. Only examples of this are tribes
Stage 2 characteristics
The birth rate is still high and fluctuating, the death rate falls rapidly, the total population rises rapidly and there is a natural rapid increase. Only example of this is Afganistan
Stage 3 characteristics
The birth rate falls rapidly, the death rate is low and fluctuating, the the total population is still increasing and the natural increase is decreasing. Examples of this are found in most places around the world
Stage 4 characteristics
The birth rate is low and fluctuating, the death rate is also low and fluctuating, the total population is high and stable and there is no natural increase or decrease. Examples of this are the UK
Stage 5 characteristics
The birth rate falls below the death rate, the death rate stays low and fluctuating, the total population falls slightly and there is a natural decrease. Examples of this is Germany
AMEW
These are the four reasoning's for the change in population, between stage 2 and stage 3
Agricultural change
Farmers can now use machines so do not need as many children as they are now no use on the farm
Migration/Urbanisation
People are moving into cities for jobs etc and there is less space so people do not want to have as many kids
Educational change
The law states that every child must be schooled and so become less of an asset and therefore people do not want as many kids
Women's status change
Women are treated equally and taught more so there are more women working and not staying home and looking after children so there are less children being born
Population pyramids
These show three important things, the death rate of a population, the birth rate of a population and the size of a population
Wide base
This means there is a high birth rate
Narrowing base
This means there is a falling birth rate
Narrow base
This means there is a low birth rate
Bulge
This shows a baby boom within that generation
Steep slopes with a narrow top
This shows a high death rate
Wide top
This shows a low death rate
Tall pyramid
This shows a high life expectancy
Short pyramid
This shows a low life expectancy
Sudden narrowing around age 5
This shows a high infant mortality
Youthful population
This causes problems as there is not a good dependency ratio of workers to non-workers
Ageing population
This also causes problems because, again, there is not a good dependency ratio, there are more non-workers in relation to the workers
Challenges of an ageing population
Higher demand on health care, higher demand on social services, pension crisis, higher demand of hospitals, large amount of retired people
Migration
This is the movement of people from a permanent home to another, with the intention of staying at least a year
Emigration
Leaving a country
Immigration
Entering a country
Asylum seeker
This is someone who wants to become a refugee
Refugee
This is someone who has fled their own country and have permission to be in a new country
Country of origion
The place where the immigrant originally lived and where the migration starts
Country of destination
The country where the immigrant intends to stay
Europe
This attracts the most immigrants in the world - 2 million per year
Economic migrants
These leave their homes seeking work and better pay