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The Scale of the Universe Parts 1 + 2

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Milky Way
The galaxy in which we are situated.
The Curtis-Shapley Debate
A debate about the size and structure of the Universe
Shapley's Argument
That the Universe was just one huge galaxy measuring 100,000 parsecs, and that our Solar System was far from the centre. He also argued that nebulae were relatively nearby
Curtis' Argument
That the Universe was made up of many galaxies which we were at the centre of. He also believed that nebulae were very distant.
Edwin Hubble
Possibly the most famous astronomer ever - settled the Curtis-Shapley debate.
Red shift
The change of light wavelengths as galaxies move further away, moving their colour further to the red side of the spectrum.
Hubble's Law
Hubble constant times distance equals speed of recession