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The bond formed when a pair of electrons is shared between two atoms.
Dot and cross diagram
Diagram, to explain what happens when a bond is formed, which uses dots and crosses to represent the electrons of different atoms.
The bond formed when two pairs of electrons are shared between the same two atoms.
Forces of attraction between oppositely charged particles, and forces of repulsion between particles with the same charge.
Referring to substances that are made up of molecules.
This shows the actual number of atoms of each element that combine to make a molecule of a substance.
A group of two or more atoms joined together by covalent bonds.
Outer electron shell
The electron shell (or energy level that contains electrons) which is furthest away from the nucleus.
The number of covalent bonds formed by an atom (or the charge number of the ion formed by an atom).