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Cell membranes and cell surface components


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Cell wall in prokaryotes contains...
peptidoglycan only (Gram +) and peptydoglycan and the outermembrane (Gram -)
Cell walls in animal cells ...
do not exist
Cell walls in plant cells ...
is composed mainly of strong fibers of the carbohydrate polymer cellulose
Bacterial flagella is...
made of flagellin, has rotatory movement and is proton-driven
Eukaryotic flagella is...
made of tubulin with a 9+2 microtubule arrangement, has bending movement, and is ATP driven
Flagella has the role to...
propell the cell forward
Cillia have the role to...
move mucus, fluid and other cells over the surface
The difference between cillia and flagella is...
their length
Glycocalix is...
a glycoprotein-polysaccharide coat that surrounds bacteria, epithelia and other cells.
Membranes are...
a collage of proteins embedded in the fluid matrix of the lipid bilayer
Phospholipids are...
amphipathic and are the most abundant lipids in the plasma membrane
Phospholipids in the plasma membrane can move...
within the bilayer by drifting laterally, and rarely can flip-flop across the membrane
The fluidity of a membrane can be increased by...
unsaturated fatty acids, and at low temperatures also by cholesterol
Cholesterol increases fluidity at low temperatures because...
it prevents the tight packing of the phospholipids
The functionality of a membrane is determined mostly by...
membrane proteins
Localization defines three types of membrane proteins namely...
transmembrane, integral and peripheral proteins
A transmembrane protein ...
a type of integral membrane protein that spans the entirety of the biological membrane to which it is permanently attached
An integral protein is...
a type of membrane protein that is permanently attached to the biological membrane
A peripheral protein is...
a type of membrane protein that adheres only temporarily to the biological membrane with which it is associated
Membrane proteins can have six major functions which are...
1. transport, 2. enzymatic activity, 3. signal transduction, 4. cell-to-cell recognition, 5. intercellular joining, 6. attachment to cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix
Membranes have selective permeability for...
hydrophilic molecules
Certain molecules can dissolve in the lipid bilayer and pass through the membrane easily. These are known as...
hydrophobic/non-polar molecules
Hydrophilic molecules pass membranes using ...
passive/active/bulk transport
The difference between passive and active transport is that...
susbtances diffuse down a concentration gradient (passive) or against it (active)
Passive transport ...
moves substances down a concentration gradient without any energy expenditure
Active transport ...
moves substances against a concentration gradient while spending energy as ATP, and requires specialized transport protein embedded in the membrane
During facilitated diffusion...
transport proteins speed the passive movement of molecules across the plasma membrane
Membrane potential is...
the voltage difference across a membrane
The voltage difference in a membrane is created by ...
differences in the distribution of positive and negative ions across a membrane
During endocytosis the cell...
takes in macromolecules by forming vesicles from the plasma membrane
During exocytosis ...
transport vesicles migrate to the membrane, fuse with it, and release their contents outside the cell
There are three types of endocytosis...
1. Phagocytosis (“cellular eating”), 2. Pinocytosis (“cellular drinking”), 3. Receptor-mediated
Phagocytosis/cellular eating is...
the ingestion of bacteria or other solid material by phagocytes and amoeboid protozoans.
Pinocytosis/cellular drinking is...
the ingestion of liquid into a cell by the budding of small vesicles from the cell membrane.
Receptor-mediated endocytosis is...
is a process by which cells absorb metabolites, hormones, other proteins - and in some cases viruses - by inward budding of membrane vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being absorbed