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Level 11

Cell signaling


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Autocrine is ...
a chemical signal produced by a cell which targets itself
Paracrine is...
when a cell signals it's neigbour
Endocrine is...
when a cell sends signal to cells far away
A receptor is...
a molecule which detects a stimulus
Transduction is...
the transfer of a signal to the cytoplasmic side
The response of a cell signaling cascade is...
activation of a gene or enzyme
Receptors which are on the cell surface bind ligands which are ...
hydrophilic
Receptors which are intracellular bind ...
hydrophobic signalls which can pass cell membranes
G-protein coupled receptor is a...
cell surface receptor coupled to protein G
G-protein is ...
a GDP/GTP-binding protein which acts as on/off switch for cell signals
G-protein is active when...
GTP is bound to the dissociated alpha subunit
Tyrosine kinase receptors are...
cell surface receptors with intracellular Tyrosine tails
Tyrosine kinase receptors are active when ...
signal molecules induce dimerization, and tyrosine kinase phosphorylates its Tyr
Tyrosine kinase receptors transmit a signal when...
they activate relay proteins via phosphorylated Tyr
Ion channel receptors are ...
cell surface receptors that bind ligands which induce conformational changes to permit ions-to pass
Signal transduction is ...
a molecular signal cascade which relay signals from receptors to target molecules
Protein phosphorylation is a
phosphorylation signaling cascade
What does protein kinase do during transduction?
it activates by phosphorylation the proteins of the signaling pathway
What does a protein phosphatase do during singnal transduction?
it deactivates by dephosphorylation the proteins of the signaling pathway.
What does cAMP do for singaling pathways?
it acts as a secondary messenger
A secondary messenger is...
a small water soluble molecule or ion which spreads through the cell by diffusion
Which are the most common secondary messengers?
cAMP and Ca2+
How is cAMP made?
by dephosphorylation and cyclization of AMP by adenylyl cyclase
How is cAMP brokend down?
by water addition by a phosphodiesterase which converts it to AMP
What happens to the signal response in a signaling pathway?
it gets amplified and the overall efficiency of the response depends on scaffolding proteins