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Cell metabolism (general)


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Catabolism is the ...
energy yielding metabolism by which cells breakdown complex molecules
Anabolism is the ...
energy consuming metabolism by which cells synthesize complex biomass molecules
What is an oxidation reaction?
the reaction in which you loose electrons
What is a reduction reaction?
the reaction in which you gain electrons
What is an oxidant?
a molecule which lacks electrons and accepts electrons from a reductant
What is a reductant?
a molecule which has excess electrons and donates them to an oxidant
What is an electron acceptor?
an oxidant which lacks electrons and can accept electrons from a reductant
What is an electron donor?
a reductant which has excess electrons and donates them to an oxidant
What happens with electrons during cells respiration?
electrons move during cell respiration - they are gained (reduction) or lost (oxidation).
Why do cells use NAD+ for?
for stepwise harvest of energy (electrons + protons) from the H atoms in foods i.e. glucose
In a cell, NADH represents ...
stored energy tapped to synthesize ATP
How many electrons and H+ can NAD+ gain ?
2 electrons and 1 proton (H+)
NAD+ is an electron carrier which can carry ...
2 electrons
Glucose (C6H12O6) is converted to CO2 in a process called ...
oxidation
During catabolism, electrons from glucose are transferred to ...
a coenzyme called NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)
During cellular respiration NAD+ functions as an ...
oxidizing agent/electron acceptor
Glycolysis is...
the first step in cellular respiration when glucose is oxidized to pyruvate
Pyruvate oxidation connects ...
glycolysis and the Krebs cycle
Why do we need pyruvate oxidation?
pyruvate from glycolysis is oxidized to AcetylCoA which feeds the Krebs cycle
Krebs cycle is...
the 2nd step of cell respiration in which AcetylCoA is oxidized to CO2 while reducing NAD+ and FAD
Oxidative phosphorylation is ...
the 3rd step of cell respiration which oxidizes NADH and FADH2 from Krebs for ATP synthesis
Substrate level phosphorylation is...
the formation of ATP by direct transfer of phosphoryl-groups to ADP from other phosphorylated compounds.
What is the step of cell respiration where the majority of ATP is produced?
the third, oxidative phosphorylation produces 90% of the ATP of a cell.
In the absence of an electron acceptor glycolysis gets coupled to ...
fermentation