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DNA replication

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Simplest hydrophobic aminoacid where the side chains (R) is H
Hydrophobic aminoacid where R is a methyl group
The genetic information encoded in the DNA is transcribed into mRNA which contains the program for synthesis of a specific protein
Central dogma of molecular biology
Is the biological process of producing two identical replicates of DNA from one original DNA molecule
DNA replication
It is the first step in gene expression, in which DNA is copied into messenger RNA (mRNA)
It is the second step in gene expression, in which messenger RNA (mRNA) is decoded by a ribosome to produce a protein
A ribose has a hydroxyl group bound to the second carbon atom, whereas a deoxyribose has a hydrogen atom instead.
What is the difference between a ribose and a deoxyribose?
A deoxyribose builds the sugar chain of the DNA, whereas a ribose builds the sugar chain of RNA.
What can you build with a deoxyribose or a ribose?
Nitrigen-containing heterocycle containing 4 nitrogen atoms. It has 2 carbon rings, being made of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
What is a purine?
Adenine and guanine
Which are the purine bases in DNA?
Thymine and cytosine
Which are the pyrimidine bases in DNA?
Uracil and cytosine
Which are the pyrimidine bases in RNA?
Nitrigen-containing heterocycle containing 2 nitrogen atoms, and being made of only one carbon ring.
What is a pyrimidine?
A sugar-phosphate backbone.
What is the backbone of DNA?
Guanine and cytosine
What pair of nucleotides forms 3 hydrogen-bonds?
Adenine and thymine
What pair of nucleotides forms 2 hydrogen-bonds?
By X-ray difraction.
How was the DNA structure confirmed?
A template, a primer, trinucleotides, and a DNA polymerase.
What do you need to copy DNA?
From the 5' to the 3' end.
In which direction does DNA get copied?
Nucleotide-triphosphate react with the hydroxyl group on the 3' end of the template, water gets removed and the new nucleotide gets attached.
Why is DNA copied in the 5'-3' direction?
What enzyme produces the RNA primer in a cell?
DNA polymerase.
Which enzyme polymerizes the new nucleotides in a new DNA strand?
Hydrolysis of a triphosphate
Where do you get the energy to attach a new nucleotide?
What enzyme opens up the DNA in preparation for replication?
Leading strand
What is the strand of DNA replicated continuously called?
Lagging strand
What is the strand of DNA replicated discontinuously called?
Okazaki fragments
What are the fragments formed on the lagging strand called?
DNA replication in which each old strand is used as template for the formation of 2 new identical strands.
What is semiconservative DNA replication?
A topologically distinct isomer.
What is a topoisomer?
A process of separating two daughter chromosomes once DNA replication is complete. Involves cutting the two DNA strand of a daughter chromosome, separating it from the other chromosome, and sealing it back as a separated chromatid.
What is decatenation?
Topoisomerase II
What enzyme decatenates daughter chromosomes after DNA replication?
1. Base recognition; 2. Proof reading by DNA polymerase; 3. Mismatch repair system.
What are the 3 repair strategies during DNA replication?
1 in 1000 bases could be incorrect.
What is the error which could appear just by base recognition?
1 in a million bases could be incorrect.
What is the error which could appear just by base recognition and DNA polymerase proof reading?
1 in a billion base pairs.
What is the error which could appear in a normal cell?
A highly alkaline protein found in eukaryotes, which helps order and pack the DNA in nucleosomes.
What is a histone?
A basic unit of packaging in eukaryotic chromosome, consisting of the length of DNA coiled around a core of 8 histone protein cores.
What is a nucleosome?
A thread-like structure found in the nucleus of animal and plant cells. Each chromosome contains DNA which is tightly packed around proteins called histones.
What is a chromosome?