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Eukaryotic cell structure and function


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Nucleolus is...
located in the nucleus and is the site of rRNA synthesis
Ribosomes are...
complexes of protein and ribosomal RNA
Where are ribosomes carrying protein synthesis?
In the cytosol (free ribosomes) and on the outside of ER and the nuclear envelope (bound ribosomes)
Endoplasmic reticulum is...
an interconnected network of cisternae which is continuous with the outer nuclear envelope.
Smooth ER is...
ER without ribosomes on its surface, where lipids are synthesized
Rough ER is...
ER studded with ribosomes, where proteins are modified (i.e. By glycosylation)
Golgi apparatus is ...
a network of cisternae used for transport, modification and packing of proteins and lipids into vesicles for delivery to target destinations
Lysosome is...
a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that can digest macromolecules
Vacuoles are ...
large vesicles derived from the ER and Golgi apparatus
Food vacuole is...
a membrane-enclosed cell vacuole with a digestive function, containing material taken up in by the process of phagocytosis
Contractile vacuoles are...
a vacuole in some protozoans which expels excess liquid on contraction
Central vacuoles are...
found in many mature plant cells, hold organic compounds and water
Peroxisome is ...
a single membrane organelle which surrounds digestive enzymes and their dangerous byproducts (hydrogen peroxide)
Peroxisomes are involved in a catabolic process called ...
beta-oxidation of long chain fatty acids which are broken to medium chain fatty acids and then shuttled to the mitochondria
Mitochondria is...
a double membrane organelle involved in cell respiration
The inner membrane of the mitochondria has a lot of cristae because ...
they increase the binding sites for the enzymes which synthesize ATP (ATP synthase)
ATP is made in the mitochondria ...
by passing an electron through the electron transport chain while pumping H+ out of the matrix. The H+ gradient created drives H+ back in through the ATP synthase making ATP.
The cytoskeleton is...
a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm which organizes the cell’s structures and activities, anchoring many organelles
Cytoskeleton has three types of molecular structures which are...
microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments
Motility is the result of...
cytoskeleton interactions with motor proteins
The centrosome is...
an organelle that is the main place where cell microtubules are organized
A centriole is ...
a small set of microtubules arranged in a specific way
A chloroplast is...
a compartment in a plant cell which contains pigmented membranes (tylakoids) on which the light reactions of photosynthesis take place