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A2 1.2.4 - Types of Programming Language


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programming paradigm
a style of computer programming
procedural language
a programming language which has built in data types and will typically include some data structures (like arrays and records, while others such as stacks will have to be programmed); they specify a series of structured steps to complete the task
structured programming
a type of procedural programming which uses the constructs sequence, selection, iteration and recursion, and uses modular techniques to split a large program into smaller blocks
object-oriented programming
a programming paradigm that splits code into objects which possess states and behaviour, abstracts details of implementation from the user, and makes code reusable and easy to maintain
declarative programming
a programming paradigm where statements are written that describe the program to be solved and the language implementation decides the best way to solve it
functional programming
a programming paradigm where code is split into isolated functions, which accept input data and return an output; closely linked to mathematics
scripting language
a language where the code is written to automate processes instead of creating entire programs; they are often embedded into other systems
logic language
a programming language where the code consists of rules which define a scenario and questions can be asked to get answers
data query language
a language where queries to a data structure are specified by what data is wanted rather than how to get it
suitable features
different programming paradigms are required for different types of application, as one language may have more ...
class
a template that defines what the data looks like (the state) and what the data can do (the behaviour) in OOP
object
an instance of a class (OOP)
inheritance
the idea in OOP that a class can acquire the methods and attributes of other classes
encapsulation
when the methods that are applied to a data structure, are kept with the data, in such a way that the attributes and methods of one object cannot affect another and it hides the details of implementation from the user
superclass
a class that another class inherits from (OOP)
subclass
a class that inherits from a superclass (OOP)
abstraction
when classes cannot be initialised as they represent the ideas to be inherited by other classes (OOP)
polymorphism
the idea in OOP that objects can behave differently in different contexts due to overriding and overloading
overriding
the idea in OOP of writing a different version of a method that a class inherited but using the same name and formal argument types
overloading
the idea in OOP of having different versions of a method with the same name due to having different signatures (parameters)
constructor
a method in a class in OOP with the name new, which creates a new object when called
fewer flaws
Advantage of OOP: forces designers to go through extensive planning, which results in better designs with ...
independently
Advantage of OOP: encapsulation allows for the source code of one object to be written, tested and maintained ...
use it
Advantage of OOP: once an object has been created, the programmer does not need to know how its methods work to ...
small differences
Advantage of OOP: new objects can be created with ... to existing ones
programs
Advantage of OOP: objects that are already defined, coded and tested can be used in many different ...
code libraries
Advantage of OOP: provides a good framework for ... with a range of software components that can easily be adapted by a programmer
modular structure
Advantage of OOP: software maintenance is easier due to its ...
addressing mode
declares what the operand represents; it is represented by the last two digits of the opcode
immediate addressing
the operand is the actual value to be operated on
direct addressing
the operand holds the memory address of the value to be operated on (the only addressing mode used in LMC)
indirect addressing
the operand is the location which holds the address of the data needed, which allows for a larger range of addressable locations
indexed addressing
the address of the operand is obtained by adding a constant value to the contents of the index register, which is used to access an array where the elements are in successive memory locations