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A2 1.3.3 - Networks


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Router
a device that forwards packets from one network to another (but not data from a network to a different device in the same network); it changes the MAC address on a packet to route it to its destination, without changing the IP address of the packet
hop
the act of traversing between one router and another across a network
routing table
used by routers to store and update the locations of other network devices and the most efficient routes to them
routing algorithm
this can cause a bottleneck in network traffic as the decision making process is very complicated
gateway
used instead of a router when two different networks use different protocols in order to translate between them
raw data
a gateway will remove all packet information, leaving only the ... and then adds data back onto the packet in the format of the other protocol
firewall
a security checkpoint that can be implemented through hardware or software and is designed to prevent unauthorised access between two networks
two NICs
a firewall is usually a separate computer containing ... , where one is connected to the internal network and the other is connected to the external network
packet filters
preconfigured rules that data packets are analysed against when they pass through a firewall which determine if they are accepted or rejected
packet filtering
controls network access according to network administrator rules and policies by examining the source and destination IP addresses in packet headers
port number
static / packet filtering can block packets based on the IP address, the protocols being used and the ...
rejected packets
dropped packets are quietly removed while ... cause a rejection notice to be sent back to the sender
proxy server
intercepts all packets entering and leaving a network and hides the network address of the source from the recipient to enable privacy and anonymous surfing
web page data
proxies can maintain a cache of commonly visited websites and return ... without needing to connect to the internet and make requests, thus reducing internet traffic and speed up access
filter requests
a proxy can be used to ... which provides administrative control over the content that users can see
malware
malicious software that is designed to cause inconvenience, loss or damage to programs, data or computer systems; such as worms, trojans and viruses
virus
malware that resides in memory once its host file is executed and will infect any other file that is then run
macro virus
a virus that is attached to word processing or spreadsheet data files that infects the template and thus other files that are created when the data file is opened
worm
malware that resides within a data file and enters a computer through a vulnerability and replicates itself and sends copies to other users from the infected computer
trojan
malware that is disguised as legitimate software that opens a back door to the computer system once installed, which can be used to harvest personal information or to use the computer power or network bandwidth
botnet
a network of internet-enabled computers infected with malware (usually by trojans) and controlled as a group without the owners' knowledge
renew
System Vulnerability: when the user has failed to ... virus protection software
switched off
System Vulnerability: when the user has ... their firewall
module
System Vulnerability: when data is passed from one function or ... to another in an application
buffer overflow
when a program accidentally overwrites values in neighbouring locations to the intended memory location, which is a system vulnerability that attackers can use
social engineering
the use of deception to manipulate people into opening malicious files and links or disclosing authentication credentials
new vulnerabilities
it is important that antivirus software and the OS is regularly updated as new malware is regularly created to exploit ...