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primitive data type

a data type which is provided by a programming language

integer

a whole number (positive or negative), e.g. -25, 0, 3, 287

float

a number with a fractional part / a decimal number, e.g. 1.0, 15.5, -2.333

Boolean

this variable can only take the value TRUE or FALSE

character

a singular letter, number or special character (typically represented in ASCII), e.g. a, A, 8, %

string

a sequence of characters (including text, numbers, symbols, carriage returns and spaces), enclosed in quotation marks

denary

base 10 number system (ie. uses numbers 0-9)

binary

base 2 number system (ie. uses 0s and 1s)

hexadecimal

base 16 number system (ie. uses numbers 0-9 and letters A-F)

characters

Reasons for using Hexadecimal - Compared to binary, more bytes and information can be represented in fewer...

remember

Reasons for using Hexadecimal - Fewer human errors are likely to be made compared to using binary, as hex numbers are easier to write and...

bit

short for binary digit; has a single binary value (either a 0 or 1)

byte

a group of 8 bits

kibibyte

1024 bytes

mebibyte

1024 kibibytes

gibibyte

1024 mebibytes

Sign and Magnitude

a method to represent negative numbers in binary, but can then pose issues later when using the binary numbers in arithmetic

Two's Complement

a method to represent negative numbers in binary by switching all ones to zeros and all zeros to ones and then adding one to the result

character set

the mapping of a collection of characters to its unique bit sequence/code

American Standard Code for Information Interchange

the previous character set used, which used 7 bit codes for each character

Extended ASCII

the 8 bit character set that was developed from the 7 bit character set used beforehand, allowing for more characters to be stored and used

Unicode

the character set with 16 bit codes introduced to allow for the alphabets of all languages, making documents of different languages compatible

128

the number of combinations ASCII allowed for, which was very limited, thus prompting the introduction of Unicode which allowed for more characters to be stored

UTF-16

16 bit Unicode, allowing for 65,536 different combinations

UTF-32

32 bit Unicode, allowing for over 1 million combinations, thus being suitable to store most of the Chinese and Japanese alphabets as well