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range and precision

fixed point binary limits the ... of values that can be represented in a given number of bits

normalising floating point

process of moving the binary point of a floating point number to provide the maximum level of precision for a given number of bits

mantissa

the size of the ... will determine the precision of a floating point number

exponent

the size of the ... will determine the range of numbers that can be stored in the floating point number

underflow

when a number is too small to be represented in the allotted number of bits

overflow

when the result of a calculation is too large to be held in the number of bits allocated

logical shift

this causes the bits to move up or down and a 0 will be added onto the corresponding end

arithmetic shift

this causes the bits to move up and down, and a 0 or 1 will be added to the corresponding end depending on the number's original sign

circular shift

the bits move up and down, and the end bit will then move back round to the corresponding end