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AS 1.1.2 - Types of Processor


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Complex Instruction Set Computer
processor design where a more complicated instruction set is used to accomplish tasks in as few lines of assembly language as possible
single instruction
CISC processor hardware is capable of understanding and executing the series of sub-tasks that make up a ...
actual calculation
a CISC instruction will combine load and store instructions with the instruction that carries out the ...
desktops
CISC processors are mostly used in ...
required
Advantage of CISC: compilers / translators don't have to convert high-level language code into lots more machine code; programs are shorter, meaning less RAM is ...
decades of software
Advantage of CISC: older processor design, meaning it is compatible with ...
advanced processing
Advantage of CISC: can perform exceedingly ...
more power
Disadvantage of CISC: uses ...
hotter
Disadvantage of CISC: requires a heatsink because these processors get ...
more complicated
Disadvantage of CISC: chips are more expensive as they are physically larger and are ...
average program
Disadvantage of CISC: many specialised instructions are built into the hardware but only a small percentage of them are used by the ...
Reduced Instruction Set Computer
processor design where only simple instructions can be executed, which only take one clock cycle
smartphones
RISC processors are mostly used in ...
less heat
Advantage of RISC: cheaper to make as they are smaller, use less power and thus do not require a heatsink because they generate ...
possible
Advantage of RISC: as each instruction takes the same amount of time, pipelining is ...
harder to code
Disadvantage of RISC: programs tend to be longer as all sub-tasks have to be included, which can make some tasks ...
machine code instructions
Disadvantage of RISC: more RAM is required to store the ...
compatible
Disadvantage of RISC: it is a more modern design so less software is available or ... with these processors
co-processor
an extra processor used to supplement the functions of the primary processor, and often only carries out a limited range of functions
graphics processing
a co-processor may be used for floating point arithmetic, digital signal processing and ...
pipelining
technique to improve processor performance: while one instruction is being fetched, another is being decoded, and another is being executed
multi-core CPUs
achieve significantly higher performance by distributing workload across multiple cores
existing application software
maximising the usage of computing resources provided by having multiple cores requires adjustments to the operating system and to ...
clusters
multiple machines that are connected using network technology, which is a technique commonly employed by supercomputers
multiprocessing
the use of two or more central processing units within a single computer system, which can be a technique used by supercomputers
sequencing DNA
supercomputers are often used for weather forecasting, running climate change models, processing Big Data and ...
array processor
has a number of Arithmetic Logic Units that allows all the elements of an array to be processed at the same time
Single Instruction Multiple Data
concept used by array processing, where a single instruction is issued by a control unit and that instruction is applied to a number of data sets at the same time
games consoles
array processing is often used for controlling input and output devices, such as tracking the mouse pointer on the screen, displaying data on the monitor and is often used in ...
sequential processing
when instructions are carried out one at a time, in the order that they were received
real world phenomena
parallel computing is well suited for modeling, simulating and understanding complex and ...
previous operation
serial / sequential processing will often still be used when data relies on the result of a ...