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1.1.3 - Input, Output and Storage


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Input Device
a peripheral used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system
Barcode Reader
INPUT Device. Light is directed at the strip, and is reflected where it is white (absorbed where it is black), and the amount of light received back is stored as binary. Makes up a code.
QR Barcode Reader
INPUT Device. Detects 2D barcodes, which can store more information than standard 1D barcodes can. Often used for ticketless entry.
Radio Frequency Identification Reader
INPUT Device. Receives a signal from a short-range broadcaster, which represents a number. Does not need to be in direct line of sight. Can be passive, semi-passive or active.
RFID
Active - requires its own battery for power; used for cars passing through a motorway toll booth, or marathon runners passing mile markers. Passive - rely on radio waves from reader for power; used for tagging items in shops, oyster cards and contactless cards.
Digital Camera
INPUT Device. Lens magnifies and focuses light onto a CCD. Transistors create electrical currents in proportion to the light intensity.
CCD Sensor
Charge-Coupled Device. Converts light into electrons. Produces higher quality images and is more reliable than a CMOS sensor, but is more expensive and has a higher power consumption.
CMOS Sensor
Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor. Converts light into electrons. More susceptible to noise but is cheaper to manufacture and consumes less power than a CCD sensor.
Scanner
INPUT Device. Reflected light from documents or photographs is captured by this device and then turned into a digital representation
Touch Pad
INPUT Device. A touch-sensitive panel which responds to finger movement. Replicates the function of a mouse.
Touchscreen
INPUT Device. Allows someone to interact directly with software on screen without the need for a mouse or separate keyboard.
Microphone
INPUT Device. Converts sound waves into electrical signals.
Magnetic Stripe Reader
INPUT Device. Reads data from a special magnetic stripe on a card when it is swiped.
Output Device
a peripheral used to present processed data to users in a form that they can understand
Monitor
OUTPUT Device. Displays the results of computer processing to the user in a visual format
Liquid Crystal Display
LCD Monitors - produces sharper images, reaches max brightness very quickly, low power consumption, screens can be thin, very reliable and long-lasting
Organic LED
OLED Monitors - brighter, thinner and lighter than traditional LCD or LED screens, and the screen is plastic rather than glass so is more flexible; however, they do not last as long as LCD monitors
Laser Printer
OUTPUT Device. Work by using static charges. High quality print. Relatively quick but can be expensive to run. Mostly used for text documents rather than high-quality photos
Inkjet Printer
OUTPUT Device. Work by spraying dots of ink onto paper. Cheaper than laser printers, but are slower and ink has to be replaced more frequently. Can produce very high quality photos
Dot Matrix Printer
OUTPUT Device. Pins strike surface of paper through an inked ribbon. Good for printing on multi-part stationery, and can operate in dirty or damp environments, but are noisy, slow and have poor print quality
3D Printer
OUTPUT Device. Used to produce prototypes, prosthetic limbs, fashion accessories, and spare parts for obsolete equipment
Speaker
OUPUT Device. Can play music, voice, sound tracks, verbal instructions (ie. from a sat nav), notification alerts and text-to-speech for the visually impaired
Actuators
OUTPUT Device. Commonly used with sensors to control a mechanism like opening a window or valve, turning a wheel, starting/stopping a pump and controlling devices in a smart home
Secondary Storage
a device that stores information permanently and is not immediately accessible by the processor
Magnetic Storage
the manipulation of magnetic fields on a medium in order to store data
Optical Storage
the storage of data on an optically readable medium, where the data is recorded by making marks in a pattern
Flash Storage
storage through an electronic, solid-state, non-volatile medium, which can be electronically erased and reprogrammed
Hard Disk Drive
Magnetic storage medium, which can store large amounts of data, and is very affordable, but consumes more power than SSDs; mainly used for storing programs and files
blocks
On magnetic storage, what is formed by tracks and sections, and holds the information?
reading heads
The housing of a hard disk must be evacuated to prevent specks of dust from damaging the disk or...
Solid State Drive
Flash storage medium, which has very high speeds but is quite costly compared to HDDs, so is often used for the OS and other frequently accessed data; also has a limited lifetime dependent on the number of read/write cycles performed
NAND
What type of flash memory is used for solid state drives, which uses a data controller to control the reading and writing of data?
Page
a fixed block of memory in a Solid State Drive that is used to facilitate the efficient transfer of data
erased
NAND flash memory cannot overwrite existing data, thus requiring the entire page and block (if the page is linked to a block) to be...
Optical Disk
Optical storage medium, which has a small storage capacity, but is cheap and easy to distribute, and can be read-only or rewritable; it is slower than HDDs and SSDs
Blu-Ray
Optical storage medium, which is becoming more widespread as it can store larger amounts of data than CDs and so are used for HD films and video games
track
On an optical disk, there is a singular spiralling ... , which is read from the inside of the CD to the outside
pits
To make a CD read-only, a powerful laser is used to burn what into the disk, representing a binary value that can then be interpreted?
transparent dye
What is used on rewritable optical disks as its opacity can be altered by a laser beam?
Main Memory
memory that is directly accessible to the processor
Read Only Memory
a permanent area of storage for programs and data installed in the manufacturing process; cannot be altered or removed, is non-volatile
volatile
the loss of data from a storage medium when power is lost
Basic Input Output System
part of ROM, which stores critical programs such as the one that starts the computer
Random Access Memory
primary storage which is directly written to and read by the processor, used to store the programs and data currently in use, and is volatile
Cache Memory
extremely fast storage medium, closer to the processor than the main memory, which holds frequently accessed code and data, although has a very small capacity; is expensive
Addressable Memory
memory that is accessible from a computer program to store data (e.g. RAM)
Virtual Memory
if the RAM on a computer is not large enough to hold all the programs running simultaneously, part of the hard disk will be used as ... to store some of the programs (usually the ones being used the least at that time), this can cause the computer to run more slowly
Redundant Array of Independent Disks
several storage devices linked together to appear as one single storage device (virtual storage), often used as a way of providing a continuity of service if a disk were to fail
Cloud Storage
Virtual storage saved in an external online storage facility which uses and relies on networking technology