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disposal of
the act or means of getting rid of something
to dump
to dispose of something in an irresponsible manner
harmful to the environment
causing damage to the natural world
toxic (waste)
poisonous (waste)
public health
community health
on a global scale
in relation to the entire world
(changing) weather patterns
When the weather maintains consistency for a period of time
a searing heat
an extreme heat
to soar temperatures
to quickly increase to a high leve
widespread (flooding)
happening or existing in many places, or affecting many people
dire (consequences)
extremely serious
irreversible (climate change)
impossible to change or bring back a previous condition or situation
to reduce carbon footprint
to reduce amount of carbon dioxide created by an activity/person/business
food miles
distance food has to travel between where it is grown or made and where it is consumed
to offset carbon emissions
to pay for an equivalent amount of carbon dioxide to be saved elsewhere
vehicle emissions
gases produced by cars, exhaust fumes
a hybrid car
a car which can alternate between different energy sources (e.g. petrol and battery)
alternative energy sources
energy, as solar, wind, or nuclear energy, that can replace or supplement traditional fossil-fuel sources, as coal, oil, and natural gas.
solar heating
renewable energy system that collects energy from the sun in the form of heat rather than using the sun's energy to produce electricity, as is the case with solar photovoltaics.
offshore (wind farms)
at sea, away from the coast
to run dry
to finish suppliers
renewable energy
energy that is collected from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
to introduce green taxes
to impose taxes which relate to the protection of the environment
eco-friendly design
an approach to designing products with special consideration for the environmental impacts of the product during its whole lifecycle.
to find a solution
to work out a problem
it is absolutely vital
to trigger
to make something happen
environmental challenges
issues related to environment that require a lot of skill, energy, and determination to deal with or achieve
rainfall and snow patterns
when rain and snow periods maintain consistency
state or condition when human demands for water exceed its natural availability
melting glaciers
ice caps that are shrinking
increase in mean temperature
The ... has led to melting of most of the world’s glaciers.
greenhouse gas
any of various gaseous compounds (such as carbon dioxide) that absorb infrared radiation, trap heat in the atmosphere, and contribute to the greenhouse effect
clearing of trees without the intention of replanting them
the variety of all living beings on Earth which includes plants, animals and microorganisms.
prevailing among a specific group of people or in a specific area or country
endangered species
species that are considered to be at risk of extinction
Ozone layer
a belt of naturally occurring ozone gas that sits above the earth and serves as a shield from the harmful ultraviolet radiation
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
The three R’s of the environment
disposable (items)
intended to be thrown away after use.
mass transportation
public transportation; shared passenger-transport service which is available for use by the general public
high/ low carbon diet
diet that implies foods require more/less fossil fuel inputs than others
hazardous waste
rubbish that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or environment
an area of land that is used to dispose of waste; organised areas where waste is buried in the ground
the presence of unwanted foreign substances.
chemicals that kill or manage pests like small Colorado potato beetles.
Renewable energy
energy that is collected from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
tidal energy
power produced by the surge of ocean waters during the rise and fall of tides
Wind turbines
power generating device that is driven by the kinetic energy of the wind.
Solar panels
devices that convert light into electricity.
fossil fuels
Sources of energy in the form of remains of dead plants and animals
Acid rain
rain that contains dangerous chemicals because of car emissions and factories pollution
Industrial waste
damaged, defective or superfluous material produced by industry
The process by which towns and cities are formed and become larger as more and more people begin living and working in central areas.
natural disaster
a sudden and terrible event in the nature (such as hurricane, tornado or flood) that usually results in serious damage and many deaths.
Sustainable agriculture
the act of farming based on an understanding of ecosystem services, the study of relationships between organisms and their environment
To conserve energy
to use energy carefully in order to prevent loss or waste
Exhaust fumes
gases ejected from an engine as waste products
pollution by poisons or dangerous elements
the biosphere
the relationship between all living things on the planet
pollutant particles
microscopic elements of pollution
Rainwater run-off
water that runs from the ground into rivers and lakes
the water cycle
the natural process of water moving from clouds to rain and seas
underground, natural water stores
the process of filtering and removing impurities
water table
the layer of water below ground
polluted or contaminated
soil erosion
the loss of soil caused by wind and rain activity
cutting down trees for timber and industrial use
leaving waste deliberately without storing or treating it
any material not wanted or needed after a process
Controlled landfills
organised areas where waste is buried in the ground
waste processing
recycling or reducing waste into manageable forms
illegally hunting and killing animals
habitat loss
destruction or disappearance of an animal’s natural home
food chain
the natural system of animals eating other animals and plants
dwindling numbers
decreasing numbers
a situation where there is a lack of food in an area for a long time
similar to famine, but a lack of water
water supplies
the provision of water by public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.
supplying water to land for agriculture
Distressing impact
upsetting, causing anxiety
a grave impact
something that is serious or taken seriously or doing something in a solemn or sedate manner.
a great disaster affecting many people
to exacerbate
to make an existing problem worse, accidentally or deliberately
to represent a major threat to
to constitute a significant danger
to tackle an issue
to address a problem, to deal with a problem
to avert
to prevent
to mitigate
to attenuate, to diminish, to reduce, to alleviate
to introduce laws
to initiate laws , to propose, to set forth
to levy a tax
to impose a tax
to invest in
To spend money or time on something that will be beneficial in the future
energy efficient
product and systems that use less energy to perform as well or better than standard products
To limit our contribution to
to reduce our input to
calamitous, ruinous
To cope with
to deal effectively with something difficult
To displace
to force (someone) to leave their home, typically because of war, persecution, or natural disaster
to safeguard
to protect from harm or damage with an appropriate measure
to migrate to nearby cities
to relocate to nearby cities
a sudden occurrence of something unwelcome, such as war or disease.
It is pointless
it is aimless, trivial
It is absurd to argue that
it is illogical to assert that
To exist only for the benefit of humans
to be present only for human welfare
to encourage the extinction of animal species
to support the elimination of animals
there is no compelling reason
there is no convincing logic
to die out
to become extinct
To exist side by side with wild animals
to coexist with wild animals
To stabilize the Earth’s climate
to make the climate resistant to change
To take steps to reduce
to do what is necessary to prevent something
Human population
world population
Serious environmental degradation
The process in the quality of environment changes to a worse condition.
Irresponsible disposal of industrial waste
Discharge industrial waste without concern about the environment.
Waste treatment system
The way to treat waste without harming the environment.
to discharge chemical waste
to dispose of chemical waste.
to litter the street
to leave the waste paper, cans, etc. on the street
The emission of greenhouse gases
The act of sending out gas, especially carbon dioxide or methane, that is through to trap heat above the Earth and cause the greenhouse effect.
Poison used to kill unwanted plants
Not harmful to the environment
To be spoiled by
To be received a bad effect that it is no longer attractive, enjoyable, useful, etc
Contamination of land, air or water
To make land, air or water dirty or harmful by putting chemicals or poison in it.
Illegal logging and deforestation
the work for cutting down trees for commercial purpose in an illegal way
Burning fossil fuels
Burning a fuel such as coal or oil that is produced by the very gradual decaying of animals or plants over million of years.
long-term consequences
something that happens in the distant future as a result of a particular action or set of conditions.
Environmental protection
The act of protecting the environment
Sustainable development
The development without damaging the environment
to deplete natural resource
to reduce the amount of natural resource
to fight climate change
to prevent a permanent change in weather
to conserve energy
to protect and prevent energy overconsumption
to sort the daily garbage
To arrange garbage in groups according to size, type daily
to claim
to assert, to argue, to support
a sudden violent shaking of the ground, typically causing great destruction, as a result of movements within the earth's crust or volcanic action.
a storm that moves over water and has very strong winds
a tornado
a mobile, destructive vortex of violently rotating winds having the appearance of a funnel-shaped cloud and advancing beneath a large storm system
a tropical storm in the region of the Indian or western Pacific oceans.
a volcano
a mountain or hill, typically conical, having a crater or vent through which lava, rock fragments, hot vapour, and gas are or have been erupted from the earth's crust.
(of rain) falling rapidly and in copious quantities
a flood
an overflow of a large amount of water beyond its normal limits, especially over what is normally dry land.
a prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall, leading to a shortage of water
extreme scarcity of food
a disease affecting a disproportionately large number of individuals within the population
a plague
an unusually large number of insects or animals infesting a place and causing damage
to sweep
to pass or draw (something) over a surface with a continuous stroke or movement:
to erupt
to eject matter
to break out
(phrasal verb) to begin suddenly or violently or change abruptly into something else, (of war, fighting, or similarly undesirable things) start suddenly
aid convoy
a group of vehicles carrying emergency food and supplies
a person or thing injured, lost, or destroyed
relief supplies
US troops had helped distribute ... to Kurdish refugees in northern Iraq.
disaster/emergency relief
Our objective is to provide food aid and ... to developing countries.