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L17 Abnormalities of growth, differentiation and m


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hypertrophy
increased cellular activity: bigger cells in response to stress
hyperplasia
increased cellular activity: more cells in response to stress
permanent
Hypertrophy is seen particularly in _________ cell populations; e.g. cardiac and skeletal muscle; increases functional capacity
labile and stable
Hyperplasia is possible in _______ and _______ cell populations; can be physiological or pathological
subcellular hypertrophy
Increase in size of subcellular organelles (e.g. barbiturate increase smooth ER in liver, increasing p450 metabolism of other drugs)
subcellular hyperplasia
Increase in number of subcellular organelles
atrophy
Decrease in cell size and number leading to decrease in size of tissue or organ
involution
Physiological atrophy by apoptosis - e.g. foetal blood vessels
disuse atrophy
Pathological atrophy due to decreased workload (e.g. leg in plaster cast)
denervation atrophy
Pathological atrophy due to loss of innervation - e.g. polio
blood supply
Pathological atrophy due to diminished ______ _______ - e.g. cerebral atrophy or renal atrophy in renal artery stenosis
pressure
Pathological atrophy due to ________ - e.g. Hydronephrosis
agenesis
developmental cause of reduced cell mass: failure of formation of embryonic cell mass (anlage)
aplasia
developmental cause of reduced cell mass: failure of differentiation to organ-specific tissues
dysgenesis
developmental cause of reduced cell mass: failure of structural organisation of tissues into organ
hypoplasia
developmental cause of reduced cell mass: failure of growth of organ to full size
metaplasia
transformation of one differentiated cell type into another; better adaptation to new environment; can affect epithelium and mesenchymal tissues; physiological or pathological
dysplasia
earliest morphological manifestation of multistage process of neoplasia (abnormal orientation, size, shape and number of cells)
carcinoma in-situ
non-invasive neoplasia, confined to basement membrane
neoplasia
un-coordinated new growth which persists after cessation of stimulus