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L4 Acute Inflammation


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neutrophil polymorph
characteristic cell in acute inflammation
rubor
redness - a physical characteristic of acute inflammation
calor
heat - a physical characteristic of acute inflammation
tumor
swelling - a physical characteristic of acute inflammation
dolor
pain - a physical characteristic of acute inflammation
functio laesa
loss of function - a physical characteristic of acute inflammation
causes
physical agents, infections, hypersensitivity reactions, chemicals and tissue necrosis are all ___ of acute inflammation
vessel calibre
first stage of acute inflammation: change in _____ _____
fluid exudate
second stage of acute inflammation: increased vascular permeability and ____ _____ formation
cellular exudate
third stage of acute inflammation: ____ ______ formation
hyperaemia
causes calor in acute inflammation; excess blood in vessels near organ
exudate
extravascular fluid with high protein concentration, containing cellular debris. Implies inflammation
transudate
extravascular fluid with low protein, little or no cellular component
oedema
excess fluid in interstitial tissue/ serous cavities – exudate or transudate
pus
inflammatory exudate rich in neutrophils, dead cell debris and microbes
histamine & NO
mediate vasodilation (initially transient vasoconstriction) on vascular smooth muscle in acute inflammation
microvasculature
_____________ increases in permeability resulting in escape of protein rich fluid exudate: CAUSES: chemical mediators (histamine, NO, leukotriene), direct vascular injury, endothelial injury
fibrin
acute inflammation: effects of fluid exudate: toxin dilution, antibody entry, drug transport, _____ formation, nutrient delivery, immune stimulation, high turnover
stasis
acute inflammation: results from loss of fluid into tissues and increased calibre of vessels
neutrophils
acute inflammation: stasis allows ________ to line up along vascular endothelium, stick to endothelium and migrate through wall into tissues
margination
movement of neutrophils towards endothelial walls (selectin mediated)
pavementing
sticking of neutrophils to endothelial walls (integrin mediated)
diapedesis
neutrophils squeezing through capillary walls (integrin mediated)
bone marrow
site of neutrophil production
directional chemotaxis
describes movement of neutrophils to site of inflammation in response to chemical stimuli
cell derived
_____ ________ mediators of acute inflammation: histamine, prostaglandins, lysosomal components, leukotrienes, cytokines
plasma derived
_____ ________ mediators of acute inflammation: complement system, Kinin system, coagulation cascade, fibrinolytic system
phospholipases
cell membrane phospholipids --> arachidonic acid (steroids inhibit)
5-lipoxygenase
arachidonic acid --> leukotrienes (via 5-HPETE)
cycloxygenase
arachidonic acid --> prostaglandin (NSAIDs inhibit)
pyrexia
systemic effect of inflammation: high temperature
cytokines
cause pyrexia in acute inflammation
enlargement
general effect of inflammation: lymph node ________
leukocytosis
general effect of inflammation: increased white cell count
full blood count
lab assessment of inflammation: FBC
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
lab assessment of inflammation: ESR
C-reactive protein
lab assessment of inflammation: an acute phase protein
digestion
harmful effect of inflammation: ______ of normal tissues e.g. abscess cavities
swelling
harmful effect of inflammation: e.g. acute epiglottitis
hayfever
harmful effect of inflammation: example of inappropriate inflammatory response
fibrinous inflammation
characteristic of inflammation in body cavity, e.g. pericardium; if not removed by fibrinolysis, can lead to scarring (organisation) and obliteration of pericardium
pyogenic
describes pus producing bacteria
resolution
usual consequence of acute inflammation
suppuration
consequence of acute inflammation due to excessive exudate (leads to discharge or repair and organisation)
repair and organisation
consequence of acute inflammation due to excessive necrosis or suppuration after discharge
chronic inflammation
consequence of acute inflammation with persistent causal agent
fibrosis
eventual consequence of repair and organisation or of chronic inflammation
SIRS
syndrome of systemic inflammation, organ dysfunction and organ failure; subset of cytokine storm; closely related to sepsis
ARDS
widespread inflammation of lungs occurring in critically ill patients; triggered by various pathologies e.g. trauma, pneumonia and sepsis
CGD
inherited disorder of phagocytic cells resulting from an inability of phagocytes to produce bactericidal superoxide anions; leads to recurrent life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections
HAE
rare, autosomal dominatly inherited blood disorder causing episodic attacks of swelling affecting face, extremities, genitals, GI tract and upper airways; due to low level/poor function of C1 inhibitor
Amyloidosis
rare, serious disease caused by accumulation of proteins as abnormal, insoluble amyloid fibrils, within the extracellular space in the tissues of the body