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L5 Overview of immune response


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INNATE
_____ immune system: comprises barrier and chemical mechanisms, pattern recognition receptors & cellular components (NK cells & phagocytes)
pattern recognition receptors
component of innate immune system: inclusive terms for antigen recognition receptors; two groups; eg Toll-like receptors (TLRs); NOD-like receptors (NLRs); Rigl-like receptors (RLRs); C-type lectins (CLRs); scavenger receptors
antimicrobial peptides
component of innate immune system: defensins, cathelin, protegrin, granulsyin, hiastatin, secretory leukoprotease inhibitor & probiotics
cells
component of innate immune system: macrophages, dendritic cells, NK cells, NK-T cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells, basophils & epithelial cells
complement
component of innate immune system: classic & alternative complement pathway; proteins that bind these components
cytokines
component of innate immune system: autocrine, paracrine, endocrine that mediate host defence and inflammation, as well as recruit, direct and regulate adaptive immune responses
Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns
recognised by PRRs: PAMPs
Danger Associated Molecular Patterns
recognised by PRRs; DAMPs
receptors
Group of PRRs: transmembrane and intracellular ________, e.g.: TLRs, NLRs, RLRs & CLRs
fluid-phase recognition molecules
Group of PRRs: C-type lectin family: COLLECTINS (Mannan-binding Lectin; surfactant protein A & D); recognition of microbial complex carbohydrates, binds via CRDs; role in pathogen neutralisation; role in recruitment of adaptive response
Macrophages
cell of innate immune system: phagocytose and kill bacteria; produce antimicrobial peptides; bind LPS; produce inflammatory cytokines
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells
cell of innate immune system: produce large amounts of interferon (IFN) which has antitumor and antiviral activity; found in T cell zones of lymphoid organs; circulate in blood
Myeloid dendritic cells
cell of innate immune system: Interstitial DCs and Langerhans DCs - produce IL-12 & IL-10
interstitial dendritic cells
type of myeloid DC: strong producers of IL-12 & IL-10; located in T-cell zones of lymphoid organs, circulate in blood, and present in interstices of heart, lung & kidney
Langerhans dendritic cells
type of myeloid DC: strong producers of IL-12; located in T-cell zones of lymph nodes, skin epithelia, and thymus medulla; also circulate in blood
Natural killer cells
cell of innate immune system: kill foreign and host cells that have low levels of MHC+ self peptides. Express NK receptors that inhibit NK function in the presence of high expression of self-MHC
NK-T cells
cell of innate immune system: lymphocytes with both T cell & NK surface markers that recognise lipid antigens of intracellular bacteria such as M. tuberculosis by CD1 molecules and kill host cells infected with intracellular bacteria
Neutrophils
cell of innate immune system: phagocytose and kill bacteria, produce antimicrobial peptides
Eosinophils
cell of innate immune system: kill invading pathogens and promote inflammatory response
Mast cells & basophils
cell of innate immune system: release TNF-, IL-6, IFN- in response to a variety of bacterial PAMPs
epithelial cells
cell of innate immune system: produce anti-microbial peptides; tissue specific epithelia produce mediator of local innate immunity, e.g. lung ________ _____ produce surfactant proteins (collectins) that bind and promote clearance of lung invading microbes
ADAPTIVE
______ immune system: comprises humoral and cellular components
primary lymphoid organs
sites of lymphocyte development and selection: Bone Marrow (B cells); Thymus (T cells)
secondary lymphoid organs
sites of immune response: Spleen (white pulp); Lymph Nodes; Mucosal surfaces
VDJ recombination
generates immunoglobulin diversity (10^9) beyond insufficient repertoire of germline DNA; occurs in developing T & B cells in primary lymphoid organs
antigen presentation
antigens internalised; broken down into peptides; peptides associate with newly synthesised Class 2 molecules; brought to surface; if foreign, recognised by T helper cells which then activate, producing cytokines for B cells, T cells etc
Histocompatibility Antigens
Glycoproteins on surface of mammalian cells. Called Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA). 6 families of proteins coded by genes in MHC. Two classes (I & II); FUNCTION: present antigenic peptides to T cells
MHC Class I
present peptides to cytotoxic T cells (CD8); HLA-A, HLA-B & HLA-C
MHC Class II
present peptides to helper T cells (CD4); HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, HLA-DR
B lymphocytes
lymphocytes with potential for humeral immunity (antibody secretion)
killer T lymphocytes
lymphocytes that can kill - cellular immunity
helper T lymphocytes
lymphocytes that secrete growth factors (cytokines) which control immune response: help B lymphocytes & T lymphocytes; target of HIV
supressor T lymphocytes
lymphocytes that may 'damp down' immune response
neutralisation
inactivation of antigen by antibody binding: blocking viral binding sites; coats bacteria
agglutination
inactivation of antigen by antibody binding: joining together of bacteria, enhancing phagocytosis
precipitation
inactivation of antigen by antibody binding: makes dissolved antigens easier to phagocytose
complement activation
inactivation of antigen by antibody binding: ultimately results in cell lysis
Perforin
enzyme secreted by cytoxic T cells that perforates infected cell's membrane causing destruction
CD80
costimulation: receptor on all APCs that binds to CD28 on all T cells
IL-2
cytokine released by activated helper T lymphocytes to active other T lymphocytes
Immunosuppression
natural or artificial process which turns off the immune response, partially or fully, accidentally or on purpose; used for transplant rejection, autoimmune disease, lymphoproliferative disease
Immunodeficiency
the lack of efficient immune system - susceptible to infections; a consequence of immunosuppression
Th1
T helper cells that produce immune responses against intracellular parasites such as bacteria and viruses; produce IFN, IL-2 & TNF-beta; evoke cell-mediated immunity and phagocyte-dependent inflammation
Th2
T helper cells that produce immune responses against helminths and other extracellular parasites; produce IL-4,5,6,9,10,13; evoke strong antibody responses (inc IgE), and eosinophil accumulation, but inhibit phagocyte-dependent inflammation