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L8 Repair & Regeneration

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damaged cells replaced by like: tissue returns to normal + restitution of specialised function
labile cell
cell population: high turnover; active stem cell population; excellent regenerative capacity; e.g. epithelia
stable cell
cell population: low physiological turnover; turnover can massively increase if needed; good regenerative capacity; e.g. liver, renal, tubules
permanent cell
cell population: no physiological turnover; long life cells; no regenerative capacity; e.g. neurons, muscle, cells
stem cells
have prolonged self-renewal; asymmetric replication; reservoirs present in many adult tissues ('niches')
labile & stable
cell populations containing stem cell pools; e.g. basal layers of epidermis, bottom of intestinal crypts; vulnerable to radiation injury
rebuilding of complex structures like the glomeruli, lung & liver may be limited despite cell populations due to complex _______
connective tissue
survivial of ______ ______ essential for viability of organ 'framework' for regeneration
contact inhibition
once cells cover defect, proliferation stops due to....
complete restitution
occurs when labile cell population is completely restored - e.g. minor skin abrasion
epidermis is built from ____ upwards
damaged cells cannot be replaced by like: fibrosis and scarring
basic stereotyped pathological process in repair of specialised tissue by scar formation
granulation tissue
non-specialised tissue that forms fibrous scar to repair specialised tissue
often forms a scaffold for granulation tissue
dead tissue removed in organisation by....
scar is formed by granulation tissue contraction and accumulation of ______
capillary loops
blood supply in granulation tissue consists of new _____ ____
structural cells in granulation tissue which have contractility
functional consequences of repair may result from wound ___________
over time, vascularity and cellularity of maturing granulation tissue....
over time, collagen presence, ECM presence & wound strength of maturing granulation tissue....
infection, heamatoma, blood supply, foreign bodies and mechanical stress are ____ factors inhibiting healing
age, drugs (e.g. steroids), anaemia, diabetes, malnutrition, catabolic states, vitamin C deficiency, trace metal deficiency & comorbidities (e.g. ischaema) are _____ factors inhibiting healing
first intention
healing by ____ ________: clean uninfected surgical wound; good haemostasis; edges apposesed; haemostasis
second intention
healing by ______ ______: wound edges not opposed (extensive tissue loss/apposition not possible/large haematoma/infection/FB); not a fundamentally different process; more florid granulation tissue reaction; more extensive scarring & wound contraction
loss of full thickness of the epidermis (and possibly further tissue underneath)
after a fracture, the _______ is initially organised
woven bone laid down by osteoblasts after a fracture
lamellar bone
replaces callus over time in fracture healing
when fractures do not repair: due to misalignment, movement, infection, interposed soft tissue or pre-existing bone pathology (pathological fracture)
pathological fracture
may cause non-union of fracture to due primary (e.g. osteoporosis) or secondary (e.g. prostate metastases) bone pathology
glial cells
supporting tissue for healing in the brain is ____ _____ rather than collagen/fibroblasts
results from removal of or damage to brain tissue
occurs rather than scarring in the brain
growth factors
EGF, TGF-beta, PDGF, KGF, TNF, VEGF & TGF-alpha are all ___ ____ for repair