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L9b Microorg. classification, structure & replicat


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Domain
x3: Prokaryota, Eukaryota, Archaea
Kingdom
x5: Bacteria (Prok); Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia (Euk)
Phylum
level below Kingdom
Class
level below Phylum
Order
level below Class
Family
level below Order
Genus
level below Family
Species
level below Genus
prokaryotes
BACTERIA are of this domain:
membrane bound
bacterial organelles are not...
flagella
bacterial organ of locomotion
monotrichous
bacteria with single flagella
lophotrichous
bacteria with multiple flagella originating from same point
amphitrichous
bacteria with a single flagellum at each end of the cell
peritrichous
bacteria with many flagella projecting from across cell membrane in all directions
fimbriae
specialised thin, short 'hair-like' structures that aid adhesion to host cells and colonisation: on Gram+ and Gram- bacteria; 300-400 per cell; formation governed by bacterial genes in nuclei region
pili
specialised long tubular structures made of pilin protein that aid adhesion to host cells and colonisation: on Gram- bacteria only; 3-5 per cell; formation governed by plasmid genes; used in conjugation ('sex-pili')
capsule
polysaccharide material protecting bacteria from phagocytosis, desiccation, immune attack and antibiotics
endospores
resistant, metabolically inert form of a bacteria, triggered by environmental factors; adapted for long term survival
Gram stain
common technique used to differentiate two large groups of bacteria based on their different cell wall constituents
fastidiousness
complex nutritional requirement of a bacteria - can be used for classification
Gram positive
cell with thick cell wall directly over cytoplasmic membrane; takes up violet stain
Gram negative
bacteria with thin cell wall over cytoplasmic membrane, with overlying periplasm with Braun's lipoproteins spacing outer membrane; does not take up violet stain, so remains red
cocci
spherical shaped bacteria
bacilli
rod shaped bacteria
Gram positive cocci
eg Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus progenies, Streptococcus agalactiae
Gram negative cocci
eg Neisseria meningitis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Gram positive bacilli
eg Bacillus anthracis, Clostridium difficile, Listeria monocytogenes, Corynebacterium diptheriae
Gram negative bacilli
eg Salmonella typhi, Shigella spp, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp, Yersinia pestis; many resistant strains
Gram positive coccobacilli
eg Haemophilus, Bordetella, Brucella, Pasteurella
Spiral bacteria
eg Helicobacter, Campylobacter, Borrielia, Leptospira, Treponema pallidum
Binary fission
bacterial cells divide to give two identical daughter cells; asexual, creates new bacteria, but no exchange of genetic material
Conjugation
transfer of transportable elements in bacterial replication (plasmids via conjugation tube (sex pilus); creates no new bacteria, some genetic diversity
Transformation
bacteria picking up genetic material (plasmids) from the environment; creates no new bacteria, but introduces some genetic diversity
Transduction
transfer of genetic information to bacteria via a viral vector; introduces some genetic diversity
eukaryotes
Domain of all FUNGI
chitin
most fungi possess a cell wall made of...
filamentous
disease-causing fungi can be 'yeast like' or '______' (moulds)
yeasts
group of disease-causing fungi: includes Candida spp, Cryptocococcus, Blastomyces, Histoplasma, C. albicans
moulds
group of disease-causing fungi: includes Aspergillus, Trichopyton, Epidermophyton; cause ringworm & athlete's foot
thrush
C. albicans causes this common yeast infection
hyphae
Aspergillus structure: tiny filaments called...
mycelia
Aspergillus structure: filaments from mats called...
septa
Aspergillus structure: cross walls that may subdivide filaments into separate compartments
sexual or asexual
fungi can reproduction by '______ or ________' processes
spores
fungi replicate via...
PROTOZOA
parasites: unicellular eukaryotic organisms - intestinal (Entamoeba, Giardia, Cryptosporidium) or non-intestinal (Plasmodium, Leishmania, Trypanosoma)
Helminths
parasites: worms - intestinal (roundworms, hookworms, threadworms) or non-intestinal (schistosoma)
Flagellates
classification of Protozoa: e.g. Giardia
Amoebae
classification of Protozoa: e.g. Entamoeba
Cilliates
classification of Protozoa: e.g. Balantidium
Apicomplexa
classification of Protozoa: e.g. plasmodium
asexually
Protozoa reproduce ________ (fission); may require a second or third host to complete lifecycle; may form hardy cysts
VIRUSES
obligate intracellular parasites; debatable whether they are truly living organisms; affect all classes of organisms;
nucleic acid
viruses comprise of a ______ _____ core - double or single stranded, sense or antisense
capsid
viral protein coat - repeating units; may be icosahedral or helical
envelope
some viruses have a lipid _________, derived from host, others are 'naked'
Attachment
Stage 1a of viral replication: proteins on vision bind receptors on cells; determines host-range
Penetration
Stage 1b of viral replication: occurs by either endocytosis or direct membrane fusion
Uncoating
Stage 2 of viral replication: genome released from capsid during/after penetration; genetic material targeted to nucleus
Transcription
Stage 3a of viral replication: ___________ & splicing
Genome replication
Stage 3b of viral replication: occurs in host nucleus to viral RNA, hundreds of thousands of time
Translation
Stage 4 of viral replication: mRNAs produce proteins at ribosomes
polymerase & integrase
Stage 5 of viral replication: some early viral enzymes act on nucleus (p________ & i_______) while late viral proteins progress to Golgi (e.g. structural proteins & capsid surface proteins)
Virion assembly
Stage 6 of viral replication: genetic information assembles inside protein coat (nucleocapsid); for enveloped viruses, viral proteins concentrated at membrane with nuceocaspid and virus 'bud' through membrane
Virion release
Stage 7 of viral replication: release or integration of vision (lytic or lysogenic)
lytic
virion release by cell 'bursting' or budding through plasma membrane
lysogenic
virion release by integration into host cell DNA and replication along with host cells; passed on to daughter cells; can transform to lytic cycle; e.g. bacteriophage
RNA viruses
replicate primarily in cytoplasm; less reliant on host cell replication machinery; directly acts as mRNA for host ribosomes; transcribed by viral polymerases to be 'readable'
retroviruses
replicate using reverse transcriptase converting RNA to DNA; integrate in host cell DNA (integrate); use host replication system (unusual)
PRIONS
misfolded proteins; no genetic material; can be inherited, spread via contaminated material or occur spontaneously; aggregate and cause misfiling of native proteins - chain reaction; e.g. CJD, BSE, Scrapie