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Component 01/Section 02 - Networks


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active attack (networks)
A network attack where the hacker attempts to change data or introduce malware.
anti-malware software
Software designed to stop malware from damaging a computer or network.
backdoor
A vulnerability in a computer or network's security that a hacker could exploit.
bandwidth
The amount of data that can be transferred on a network in a given time.
brute force attack
A network attack which uses software to crack security passwords through trial and error.
bus topology
A network topology in which all devices are connected to a single backbone cable.
cat 5e/cat 6 cable
Standards for copper Ethernet cables used on LANs.
channel (Wi-Fi)
A small range of Wi-Fi frequencies.
checksum
A number used to check if a packet of data sent between network s has been received correctly.
client
A device which requests data from a server.
client-server network
A type of network managed by a server, which takes requests from client devices.
cloud computing
The use of the Internet to store files and provide software. Also known as the cloud.
denial-of-service attack
A network attack which stops users from accessing a part of a network or website.
domain name server (DNS)
A server which stores website domain names and their IP addresses.
dongle
A small piece of hardware which allow devices to connect to a network wirelessly.
dynamic IP address
An IP address which is automatically assigned to a device before it accesses a network.
encryption
Coding ('encrypting') data so that it can only be decoded ('decrypted') with the correct key.
Ethernet
Network protocol used on LANs.
fibre optic cable
A high performance cable that uses light to carry data.
file sharing
Copying files between devices on a network.
frame
The unit used to send data via Ethernet over a LAN.
FTP
A protocol used to access, edit and move files on another device, like a server.
FTP (acronym)
File Transfer Protocol
hacker
A person who tries to illegally access or attack a computer network or device.
hardware
The physical parts of a computer system.
hosting (Internet)
When a business uses its servers to store the files of another organisation.
hotspot
A location where people can access a wireless access point.
HTTP
Used by web browsers to access websites and communicate with web servers.
HTTP (acronym)
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
HTTPS
an encrypted version of HTTP
HTTPS (acronym)
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (Secure)
IMAP
A protocol used to retrieve emaiIs from a server.
IMAP (acronym)
Internet Message Access Protocol
input validation
Checking that an input meets certain criteria.
insider attacks
A network attack where someone within an organisation exploits their network access to steal information.
Internet
The ultimate/biggest/best WAN in the world, based around the TCP/IP protocol.
IP
The protocol responsible for packet switching.
IP (acronym)
Internet Protocol
IP address
A unique identifier given to a device when it accesses an IP network.
LAN
A network which only covers a single site.
LAN (acronym)
Local Area Network
lawful interception
Checking data on a network for cyber security purposes.
layers (network)
Groups of protocols that have similar functions.
MAC (acronym)
media access code
MAC address
A unique identifier assigned to a device that cannot be changed.
malware
Malicious software created to damage or gain illegal access to computer systems.
mesh topology
A network topology where every device is directly or indirectly connected to every other without a central switch or server.
motherboard
The main circuit board in a computer that other hardware connects to.
network forensics
Investigations that organisations undertake to find the cause of attacks on their network.
network policy
A set of rules and procedures an organisation will follow to ensure their network is protected against attacks.
network security
Protection against network attacks.
NIC
An internal piece of hardware that allows a device to connect to a network.
NIC (acronym)
network interface controller
P2P (acronym)
peer-to-peer
P2P network
A network in which all devices are equal and connect directly to each other.
packet switching
The process of directing data packets on a network using routers and the IP protocol.
packets (networks)
Small, equal-sized units of data used to transfer files over networks.
passive attack (networks)
Where a hacker monitors data travelling on a network.
password
A string of characters that allows access to certain parts of a computer or program.
payload (network packets)
The part of a packet with the actual data.
pentesting (penetration testing)
The process of simulating attacks on a network to identify weaknesses.
phishing
When criminals send emails or texts to someone claiming to be a well-known business.
POP3
A protocol used to retrieve emails from a server.
POP3 (acronym)
post office protocol 3
protocols (networks)
A set of rules for how devices communicate over a network.
ransomware
A type of malware that uses encryption to lock a user out of their files.
ring topology
A network topology where the devices are connected in a ring, with data moving in one direction.
router
A piece of hardware responsible for transmitting data between networks.
scareware
A type of malware that creates false messages to trick the user into following malicious links.
server
A device which provides services for other devices (clients), e.g. file storage/web pages/printer access.
SMTP
Used to send emails and transfer emails between servers.
SMTP (acronym)
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
social engineering
A way of gaining illegal access to data or networks by influencing people.
software licence
A legal agreement that states how software can be used and distributed.
spoof website
A fake website that tricks users into thinking it's another well-known website.
spyware
A type of malware which secretly monitors and records user actions.
SQL
sometimes referred to known as SEE-QUIL or ES-QUE-ELLE
SQL (acronym)
Structured Query Language
SQL injection
A piece of SQL code which can be typed into an input box to try and attack the SQL database.
star topology
A type of network topology where all devices are connected to a central switch or server which controls the network.
static IP address
A permanent IP address.
switch (network)
Connects devices together on a LAN and directs frames of data to the correct device.
TCP/IP
A set of protocols which dictate how data is sent over the Internet
TCP/IP (acronym)
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) & Internet Protocol (IP)
topology (networks)
How the devices in a network are connected together.
traffic (networks)
The amount of data travelling on a network.
trojans
A type of malware which is disguised as legitimate software.
URL
An address used to access web servers and resources on them.
URL (acronym)
Uniform Resource Locator
user access levels
Controls which files or areas of the network different groups of users can access.
validation
Checking that an input meets certain criteria.
virtual network
A software-based network that exists between devices on a physical network.
virus
A type of malware which spreads by attaching itself to files.
WAN
A network which connects networks in different geographical locations.
WAN (acronym)
Wide Area Network
WAP
A piece of hardware that allows devices to connect wirelessly.
WAP (acronym)
wireless access point
Wi-Fi
The standard used for wireless connections between devices.
wired networks
Computers or networks which are connected using physical cables to allow the transmission of information
wireless networks
Computers or networks which are connected using radio or infra-red signals to allow the transmission of information
worms
A type of malware which replicates itself.
www
The collection of websites hosted on the Internet.
www (acronym)
WORLD Wide Web