Level 6
Level 7

Component 02/Section 07 - Data Representation


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alphanumeric
The collective name for letters, digits and symbols.
analogue signal
A continuous signal which can't be processed by a computer.
AND logic gate
A logic gate with two inputs. The output will be on if both of the inputs are on. If either is off, the output will be off.
ASCII
A 7-bit character set consisting of 128 characters (8th bit is used as parity bit).
binary
A counting system using base-2 consisting of Os and 1s.
binary addition
The process of adding two binary numbers together. The rules for each digit: 1 + 1 = 0 with carry; 1 + 0 = 1 with no carry; 0 + 1 = 1 with no carry; 0 + 0 = 0 with no carry, 1 + 1 + carry = 1 with carry.
binary converting to/from denary
The process of converting binary numbers to or from decimal (Base 10).
binary converting to/from hexadecimal
The process of converting binary numbers to or from hexadecimal (Base 16).
binary overflow
When the binary number resulting from some arithmetic is to large for the available space, the overflow or carry flag is set.
binary shift
Moving the bits in a binary number left or right and filling the gaps with Os.
bit
A binary digit, either O or 1.
bit rate
The number of bits used per second of sampled audio.
bitmap image
A graphic that is made up of pixels.
Boolean logic gates
Logic circuits are special circuits built into computer chips. They receive binary data, apply Boolean operations and output binary results.
byte
8 bits.
character
A single alphanumeric symbol.
character set
A group of characters that a computer recognises from their binary representation.
check digit
A digit added to a string of digits which is used to check if all the digits have been entered and read correctly.
colour depth
The number of bits used for each pixel in an image file.
compression
The process of making the size of a file smaller.
denary
A number system using base-10. Also known as decimal.
denary converting to/from binary
The process of converting decimal numbers to or from binary (Base 2).
denary converting to/from hexadecimal
The process of converting decimal numbers to or from hexadecimal (Base 16).
digital signal
The representation of an analogue signal using binary data.
distinguished
With a monocle.
dpi
dots per inch
extended ASCII
An 8-bit character set consisting of 256 characters.
gigabyte
1000 megabytes.
hexadecimal
A counting system using base-16 consisting of the digits 0-9 and the letters A-F.
hexadecimal converting to/from binary
The process of converting hexadecimal numbers to or from binary (Base 2).
hexadecimal converting to/from denary
The process of converting hexadecimal numbers to or from decimal (Base 10).
images
Pictures stored within a computer.
kilobyte
1000 bytes.
logic circuit
An electronic circuit for performing logic operations on binary data. It may have more than one logic gate and more than two inputs.
logic gate
An electronic circuit component that performs a Boolean operation (e.g. AND, OR or NOT).
lossless compression
Temporarily removing data from a file to decrease the file size.
lossy compression
Permanently removing data from the file to decrease the file size.
megabyte
1000 kilobytes.
metadata
Extra data stored in a file which gives information about the file's properties.
nibble
4 bits.
NOT logic gate
A logic gate with one input. The output will be on if the input is off. If the input is on, the output will be off. Also known as an invertor.
NOT operator
One of the Boolean operators.
OR logic gate
A logic gate with two inputs. The output will be on if either, or both, of the inputs are on. If either both are off, the output will be off.
overflow error
An error that occurs when the computer attempts to process a number that has too many bits for it to handle.
parity bit
A bit placed at the end of binary data to show if it's been received correctly.
petabyte
1000 terabytes.
pixels
Small dots that make up a bitmap image.
resolution
The density of pixels in an image, often measured in dpi (dots per inch).
sample size
The number of bits available for each audio sample.
sampling
The process of converting analogue signals to digital data.
sampling frequency
The number of audio samples that are taken per second.
sampling intervals
The time between each sample.
sound
Noises stored within a computer
terabyte
1000 gigabytes.
truth table
A table listing all possible binary inputs through a logic circuit, with the corresponding outputs.
Unicode
A large character set that attempts to include all possible characters.
units (of data)
A standard set of measurements to cover the size of items stored in memory