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Changing Landscapes

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Formed of small particles which have been eroded, transported and deposited in layers. May include fossils e.g.
Created by volcanic activity when magma or lava cools, often contain crystals and are very hard / resistant e.g.
Formed when other rocks are changed by extreme heat or pressure, formed from layers of bands of crystals. Often hard and resistant e.g.
The make up and type of rocks that influence landforms.
Weaknesses or joints in the rock that make erosion more likely.
Tectonic processes
Movement of plates of the earth’s crust which have helped to shape British landscapes.
More resistant rock
Hard rock which take more time to erode. Often metamorphic or igneous rock types.
Less resistant rock
Softer rocks which are easier to erode, often sedimentary.
Chemical Weathering
Break down of rocks in situ by changes in rock mineral composition, often by rain and water.
Biological weathering
Break down of rocks in situ by plants and animals burrowing into and weakening the rock.
Mechanical weathering
Break down of rock in situ by physical processes caused by changes in temperature (freeze thaw, exfoliation(heat expansion)).
Slabs of rock slide down the slope by gravity.
Saturated soils and weak rock flow down the slope.
Mass movement
Movement of large amounts weakened rock / soil down a slope.
Freeze Thaw
Breaking of rocks by water getting into cracks, freezing and expanding and splitting rocks.
Breaking of the rocks by heat. Outer layers of rock heat and expand causes layers to break.
Upland landscapes
Often formed in areas where harder, resistant rocks (igneous / metamorphic) are found as they erode at a slower rate e.g.
Lowland Landscapes
Often found in areas with younger, softer sedimentary rock which are less resistant to erosion e.g.
Carboniferous limestone
Can lead to formation of some upland areas as it is a harder sedimentary rock.
Limestone pavement
Upland feature created in sedimentary rock which includes clints and grykes.
Scarp Slope
Steep sided slopes
Dip slope
Gentler sided slopes
Farming in lowland and gently sloping areas which has altered the landscape
Use of land for chopping down and growing trees for timber. Many deciduous woodlands have been replaced by carboniferous woodlands.
Use of land for buildings, villages and towns.
A large irregular shaped mass of igneous rock that reaches the surface when overlying rocks are eroded.
An isolated outcrop of rock, usually in granite landscapes.