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Weather & Climate Questions

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Explain one reason why temperature varies seasonally in the UK.
As the northern hemisphere is tilted towards the sun in summer more energy is received which means the temperature increases during the summer .
State two human causes of climate change
Emissions from burning fossil fuels and rice farming
State two greenhouse gases.
Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide
Explain one way prevailing wind affects the climate of the UK.
Map shows larger amounts of precipitation in the west because the prevailing wind brings moist air from the south west , which rises over land and condenses .
Explain one human cause of drought.
Construction of large reservoirs may cause drought downstream by reducing the flow of water .
Suggest one impact of drought for people living in a developed country.
Domestic water supply shortages , leading to hosepipe bans/lack of water for swimming pools as the need for water conservation increases .
Explain one reason for the link between sea surface temperatures and cyclone distribution.
They do not normally form over land/in colder seas with surface temperatures muchless than 27 °C , which is because they need the warm water as a source of latent heat of energy .
Explain one natural cause of climate change.
Milankovitch cycles , which means that when the Earth’s orbit is more elliptical, warmer conditions will be experienced
State two negative effects of climate change on people.
Growing seasons become shorter, Flooded homes/land
Explain one way farming produces greenhouse gases.
Farmers clear the land of trees/deforestation to provide land on which to grow crops which means that there are fewer trees to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Explain one economic impact of tropical cyclones (hurricanes and typhoons) on a developed country.
People are left temporarily unemployed less money to spend local shops/retailers experience less business/local economy suffers
Explain why the number of deaths from different tropical storms will vary.
More developed countries may have better equipped/trained emergency services which can educate people about necessary precautions before a hurricane strikes
State two characteristics of arid environments.
Hot day temperatures/often above 30oC, low levels of rainfall often below 250mm annually
Explain two reasons for the link between agriculture and drought.
Widespread deforestation to create room for growing soybean crops reduces the soil’s ability to hold water which can cause the ground to dry out
Explain one reason why tropical cyclones do not travel far inland.
The tropical cyclone requires water as this provides its main energy source and it is cut off from it when it reaches the land
Suggest two social impacts of a cyclone in a developing country.
Some areas are left without electricity and so have to leave home as they have no power or light. Water supplies may be contaminated leading to disease and illness.
Suggest two reasons why deforestation may lead to drought.
Deforestation is leading to a rise in CO2 which is contributing to global warming. Deforestation can lead to a reduction in the amount of interception which leads to less moisture being returned to the atmosphere.
State three natural causes of climate change
changes in Earth's orbit(Milankovitch Cycles), Sun spots, volcanic eruptions
State 3 pieces of evidence for natural climate change
Ice cores, pollen samples, old paintings
State 2 pieces of evidence for human climate change
Scientific data from air samples, photographic evidence of glacial retreat
State the three different atmospheric circulation cells
Hadley, Ferrel, Polar
Describe conditions where two Hadley cells meet
Rising air, low pressure, high rainfall
Describe conditions where Hadley and Ferrel Cell meet
Sinking air, high pressure, clear and dry condition
Describe conditions where Ferrel and Polar cell meet
Meeting of warm and cold air masses, warm air rises over cold leading to low pressure and rain, can switch between high and low pressure
Explain how latitude affects climate
Sun's rays are more concentrated closer to the Equator so more energy to heat the lead. Similar day lengths all year round - so similar sunshine amounts. Further from Equator, shorter days in winter leading to cooler conditions
Explain how altitude affects climate
Temperature reduces by around 1c for every 100 m above sea level, colder as you get higher
Explain how distance from oceans affects climate
Close to coasts can be wetter due to supply of moisture, oceans cool down and heat up slower than land so coasts are cooler in summer but warmer in winter.
Explain how prevailing winds affect climate
If winds blow over ocean it will lead to wetter conditions but drier if blows over land. Climate will be warmer if it blows over warmer land.