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Changing cities

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The increase in the number of people living in towns and cities compared to living in the countryside.
Emerging country
A country with high and medium human development (HMHD)
Developing country
A country with low human development (LHD)
Developed country
A country with high human development (HHD)
Natural increase
When birth rates are higher than death rates so population grows.
Major city
A city with a population of at least 400,000
Mega city
A city with a population of over 10 million.
Human Development Index
A measurement of life expectancy, education and gross national income per person used to assess progress of development.
Rural depopulation
The movement of people from rural to urban areas.
Population distribution
The pattern showing how population is spread over an area.
Population density
The number of people in an area, usually given as people per square kilometre.
Major urban centre
An area that has high population density, has houses, industry, shops and transport routes. Also known as built up areas.
An area within a country
Rate of urbanisation
The speed at which settlements are built
Enclosure Acts
Acts of Parliament between 1750 & 1860 which stopped people being able to use the fields around them. Villagers had to move to find a better life, often to industrial towns.
The growth of a town or city into the surrounding countryside which usually joins villages to bigger towns (e.g Chellaston to Derby).
Urban-rural fringe
Where towns and cities meet the countryside.
Counter- urbanisation
The movement of people from towns and cities to countryside (rural) areas.
The movement of people back into a city area, often after it has been modernised and improved.
The movement of people from one area to another.
The movement of people out of a country.
The movement of people into a country.
National Migration
The permanent movement (at least 1 year) of people within a country.
An area in which a number of existing urban areas have grown and merged into a single larger area (e.g. Birmingham and West Midlands)
Settlement function
The reasons for the growth of an area such as market town, industrial town, financial centre, political centre.
Physical factor
Natural features that encouraged the development of a town .e.g. a river for transport, port/natural harbour, shelter, good flat farming land nearby
Historical Factor
May be political reasons where twns grew because of the power held there.
Physical Factor
Natural features that may have affected the location of settlements (rivers, natural harbours, quality soils)
Industrial Revolution
During 19th Century many people moved to towns to work in the factories located to areas of natural resources such as coal and water power.
Tertiary industry
Jobs in service industry such as in shops, transport, health and education.
Quartenary industry
Jobs in hi tech industries such as software design, research and development. Footloose industries that need only good communication links and educated staff.
The land the settlement is built upon
The human and physical features surrounding the settlement
The way a city is connected or linked to other settlements in other locations e.g. transport infrastructure (road, rail, airports) or hi tech communications
Area used for housing.
Industrial Zone
Areas used for manufacturing and industry
Out of town shopping centre
Designed with easy access for cars with free parking. Includes many different retail stores, many of which used to be found in city centres.
Internet shopping
People buying goods online, so they can shop from home.
Includes road, rail and bus links as well as phone, water, electricity and gas supplies.
Suburban centre
Small shopping centres in suburban areas.
Public buildings
Buildings owned by councils that can be used by the public such as libraries, concert venues, schools
Terraced houses
Houses where they are joined to other house on both sides.
Semi detached houses
Houses that are joined on just one side to another house.
Detached houses
Houses that are not joined to another house.
Owner occupied
Houses that are lived in by the people that own them or are paying a mortgage on them.
Social housing
Houses owned by local councils or housing associations rented to people who cannot afford to buy their own house.
Affordable housing
Housing available for those on lower incomes, often for local people in popular areas.
Energy efficient housing
Homes are well insulated and may have solar panels, water capture systems to reduce the amount of energy needed to run them.
Sustainability / sustainable development
The ability to continue with a good quality of life without damaging the environment.
Green belt land
Protected land in and around cities, which cannot be built on to control the growth of cities.
Recreational land
Land used for sports pitches and parks to provide open space within a settlement.
Central Business District (CBD)
Often in the centre of urban areas with offices, shops and public buildings.
Zone of discard
Areas of older and abandoned shops and older office blocks.
Zone of assimilation
Expansion of the CBD, e.g. taking over old housing for services and offices (doctors etc.)
Inner City
Area around the CBD, often made up of old terraced housing, tower blocks and old factories and warehouses.
An area on the outskirts of a town or city, near rural areas.
A count of the number of people in an area, includes other information such as age, religion, employment and ethnicity.
The differences between rich and poor, found in all areas on small and large scale.
Index of multiple deprivation
Measures 38 items grouped into 7 main headings including income, employment, health, education, crime, access to services and living environment.
Disamenity zone
An area which suffers from disadvantages, such as poor transport and infrastructure ot lack of open space.
Housing shortage
Where there is a lack of suitable housing (may be many houses but they are too expensive for local people)
Under employment
Where there are not enough people to do all the jobs. Lack of workers in transport in 1950’s led to immigration in the UK to fill the jobs.
Where there are not enough jobs for all of the people.
Informal economy
The part of an economy (jobs) which is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.
Squatter settlement
An area which consists of self build houses made from scrap materials and usually without piped water, electricity or sewage disposal.
Homes for the poor that are often unplanned and built from scrap materials. Often on marginal land which is difficult to build on (steep or with flood risks)
Could be air or water pollution. Air pollution is worse where there is lots of traffic, water pollution is a problem where there is a lack of waste disposal and sewers.
An underground store of water which needs wells and pumps to access.
Quality of life
The general well being of individuals and societies.
Top down approaches
Improvement schemes run by the government. These are often large scale and very expensive. In housing they may require lots of people to move to new areas.
Bottom up approaches
Also known as self help schemes, small scale improvements carried out by the residents of an area. They may be given training and money to help with the improvements.