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Pathogens


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Pathogens
Microorganisms that can cause infectious disease
Bacteria
A microorganism that releases toxins to make us feel ill
10μm long
The largest a bacteria cell can be
Toxins
A poisonous substance released by bacteria; damages cells, causing symptoms of a disease
Antitoxins
What white blood cells produce; neutralise toxins
Cell Division
Under the current conditions, how bacteria multiplies
Viruses
A microorganism up to x10,000 smaller than bacteria
Host Cells
The cells a virus use to reproduce
High Mutation Rate
The reason why some viruses can be caught again; DNA mutates so memory cells can't recognise it
White Blood Cells
A type of cell in the body that can fight off pathogens
Ingestion
How white blood cells destroy a pathogen; by "eating it"
Memory Cells
A type of white blood cell; recognises a pathogen and responds quickly
Passive Immunity
A type of immunity that is generally gained by vaccines
Active Immunity
A type of immunity that is gained by the presence of a pathogen
Antibodies
What white blood cells produce; destroy pathogens by clumping them together for easier digestion
Antigens
Foreign organisms that get into the body, and trigger an immune response
Vaccination
Injecting an inactive form of a pathogen into the body