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Cubiculum
a Roman bedroom flanking an atrium; in Early Christian art, a mortuary chapel in a catacomb
Cuneiform
a system of writing in which the strokes are formed in a wedge or arrowhead shape
Cupola
a small dome rising over the roof of a building. In architecture, a cupola is achieved by rotating an arch on its axis
Cyclopean masonry
a type of construction that uses rough massive blocks of stone piled one atop the other without mortar. Named for the mythical Cyclops
Cylinder seal
a round piece of carved stone that when rolled onto clay produces an image
Daguerreotype
a type of early photograph, developed by Daguerre, which is characterized by a shiny surface, meticulous finish, and clarity of detail. Daguerreotypes are unique photographs; they have no negative
Daoism
a philosophical belief begun by Laozi that stresses individual expression and a striving to find balance in one's life
Darshan
in Hinduism, the ability of a worshipper to see a deity and the deity to see the worshipper
Documentary photography
a type of photograph ythat seeks social and political redress for current issues by using photographs as a way of exposing society's faults
Donjon
an inner stronghold of a castle complex
Donor
a patron of a work of art who is often seen in that work
Earthwork
a large outdoor work in which the earth itself is the medium
Embroidery
a woven product in which the design is stitched into a premade fabric
Encaustic
an ancient method of painting using colored waxes that are burned into a wooden surface
Engaged column
a column that is not freestanding but attached to a wall
Engraving
a printmaking process in which a tool called a burin is used to carve into a metal plate, causing impressions to be made in the surface. Ink is passed into the crevices of the plate, and paper is applied. The result is a print with remarkable details and finely shaded contours
Entablature
the upper story of a Greek temple
Etching
a printmaking process in which a metal plate is covered with a ground made of wax. The artist uses a tool to cut into the wax to leave the plate exposed. The plate is then submerged into an acid bath, which eats away at the exposed portions of the plate. The plate is then removed from the acid, cleaned, and ink is filled into the crevices caused by the acid. Paper is applied and an impression is made. Etching produces the finest detail of the three types of early prints.
Exemplum virtutis
a painting that tells a moral tale for the viewer
Façade
the front of a building
Fan vault
a type of vault so-called because a fanlike shape is created when the vaults spring from the floor to the ceiling, nearly touching in the space directly over the center of the nave. They are usually highly decorated and filled with rib patterns
Ferroconcrete
steel-reinforced concrete. The two materials act together to resist building stresses
Fête galante
an eighteenth-century French style of painting that depicts the aristocracy walking through a forested lansdcape
Fetish
an object believed to possess magical powers
Flying buttress
a stone arch and its pier that support a roof from a pillar outside the building. They also stabilize a building and protect it from wind sheer