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Foreshortening
a visual effect in which an object is shortened and turned deeper into the picture plane to give the effect of receding in space
Forum
a public square or marketplace in a Roman city
Frieze
a horizontal band of sculpture
Frottage
a composition made by rubbing a crayon or pencil over paper placed over a surface with a raised design
Genre painting
painting in which scenes of everyday life are depicted
Glazes
thin transparent layers put over a painting to alter the color and build up a rich sonorous effect
Gopura
a monumental entrance or gateway to an Indian temple complex
Gospels
the first four books of the New Testament that chronicle the life of Jesus
Grand Manner
a style of eighteenth-century painting that features large painting with figures posed as ancient statuary or before classical elements such as columns or arches
Grand Tour
in order to complete their education young Englishmen and Americans in the eighteenth century undertook a journey to Italy to absorb ancient and Renaissance sights
Grisaille
a painting done in neutral shades of gray to simulate the look of sculpture
Ground plan
the map of a floor of a building
Haboku
a monochrome Japanese ink painting done in a free style in which ink seems to be splashed on a surface
Haniwa
Japanese ceramic figures that were placed on top of burial mounds
Harlem Renaissance
a particularly rich artistic period in the 1920s and 1930s that is named after the African-American neighborhood in New York City where it emerged. It is marked by a cultural resurgence by African-Americans in the fields of painting, writing, music, and photography
Henge
a Neolithich monument, characterized by a circular ground plan; used for rituals and marking astronomical events
Hierarchy of scale
a system of representation that expresses a person's importance by the size of his or her representation in a work of art
Hieroglyphics
Egyption writing using symbols or pictures as characters
Horror vacui
a type of artwork in which the entire surface is filled with objects, people, designs, and ornaments in a crowded, sometimes congested, way
Humanism
an intellectual movement in the Renaissance that emphasized the secular alongside the religious. Humanists were greatly attracted to the achievements of the classical past and stressed the study of classical literature, history, philosophy, and art
Hypostyle
a hall in an Egyptian temple that has a roof supported by a dense thicket of columns
Icon
a devotional panel depicting a sacred image
Iconostasis
a screen decorated with icons, which separates the apse from the transept of a church
Ignudi
nude corner figures on the Sistine Chanel ceiling
Impasto
a thick and very visible application of paint on a painting surface