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Spoken Language


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Grice's Maxims:
A set of norms which language users adhere to in order to uphold the effectiveness and efficiency of communication
Quality, quantity, relevance, manner
Grice's Maxims:
The maxim of quantity
where one tries to be as informative as one possibly can, and gives as much information as is needed, and no more
The maxim of quality
where one tries to be truthful, and does not give information that is false or that is not supported by evidence
The maxim of relation
where one tries to be relevant, and says things that are pertinent to the discussion.
The maxim of manner
when one tries to be as clear, as brief, and as orderly as one can in what one says, and where one avoids obscurity and ambiguity
Prosody
The use of pitch, volume, pace, rhythm, and intonation to emphasise features of speech:
Pause
The way we punctuate speech:
Paralinguistics
Body language that enhances meaning
Phatic communication
Small talk:
Adjacency pairs
Parallel phrases, that commonly follow eachother
Predominant Channel
The speech flow of the speaker
Back-channeling
Sound responses to show attention to the speaker: known as the second channel
Contraction
Shortening two words into one
Deixis
Pointing words
Deictic Words
Words which have different meanings depending on the context
Accent
How words are pronounced: can be specific to an area
Dialect
A regional way of speaking vocabulary and grammar:
Idiolect
An individual's way of speaking:
Discourse marker
Words or phrases that link progressing conversation
Elision
Shortening words by slurring them
False start
When speech begins, ends and repeats or is adjusted:
Filler
A voice pause, a word used for thinking space
Hedge
When speech is softened or weakened, by presenting it as opinion or less probable
Interactional talk
Social speaking, speaking in a personal way:
Non-fluency features
Interruption and repetition etc. that break the flow of speech:
Repairs
Correction or clarification of things said previously:
Sociolect
A social dialect, how we talk to certain groups, friends or family:
Tag question
Softening speech and changing the mood using a question, often phatic
Transactional talk
Used in business to get something from the listener:
Turn taking
Participants take turns with little overlap or gaps between them:
Utterance
A complete unit of speech, ended by the speaker's silence: an uninterrupted chain of spoken or written language.
Vague language
Imprecise phrases or words
Alliteration
The repetition of a sound, at the beginning of words
Assonance
The repetition of vowel sounds
Sibilance
The repition of soft sounds, s or c
Plosive
Harsh sounds of constanants that stop sound, followed by exhaling
Onomatopeia
Words that describe sound
base form
root word
prefix
an affix at the beginning
suffix
an affix at the end
free morphemes
morphemes that can stand alone
bound morphemes
morphemes that cannot stand alone
inflectional affix
an affix used for certain grammatical features
derivational suffixes
affixes that change the word class
derivational prefixes
affixes that change the meaning of the word
hyponym
a word that is linked in meaning to but more specific than a hypernym
hypernym
a general term for lots of hyponym
polysemic
a word with many meanings
Three Part Exchanges
Similar to adjacency pairs but with a third response
Pre-closing signals
Signals within a conversation that show it is coming to an end