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Acquisition of Language


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Mehler and Others (1988)
A study found that French babies could tell languages apart. They sucked dummies stronger when exposed to it than English or Italian
crying
in the first few weeks, babies start ___
cooing
at 6-8 weeks, babies start ___
babbling
at 6-9 months, babies start ____
reduplicated monosyllables
e.g. "gaga", babies repeat sounds to resemble a word
phonemic expansion
the increase in the number of phonemes
phonemic contraction
number of phonemes restricts to just the native tongue
behaviourist theory
the theory that language is gained through watching, copying, being praised and corrected
skinner (1957)
the reference of the behaviourist argument
innateness theory
the argument that we have an inborn ability to understand language
chomsky (1965)
reference for the innateness theory, based around the deep structure of language
holophastic phase
12-18 months, children use one word utterances, usually nouns
two word phase
about 18 months, children start to use two words
telegraphic stage
ages 2-5, children start to speak in sentences but often leave out words
Consonant Vowel Combinations
Children start to use these at the babbling stage
addition
adding an extra phoneme on the end of a word
reduplication
repeating a syllable
deletion
missing the last consonant sound off the end of a word
consonant clusters
children reduce consonant clusters to smaller units
substitution
fricative sounds are replaced by a stop sound
fricative
a sound using friction to create a sound by gradually releasng air through a gap
stop
a sound made with air release cut off
prelinguistic
the phase before children start to use words
cognitive theory
the theory that children can only articulate what they understand
Piaget
the reference for the cognitive theory
Social Interactionist Theory
The theory that children need communication and correction to learn language
Vygotsky
The reference for the Social Interactionist Theory
Lenneberg (1967)
Reference: Children have a critical period to learn language
Nelson (1973)
Reference: 60% of first words are nouns
Berko-Gleason
Reference: Wugs
assimilation
changing a sound in a word based on other sounds in the word
Reduction
Reducing consonant clusters
Underextension
When the meaning of a word is narrowed
Overextension
When the meaning of a word is expanded
Holophrases
One-word utterances
Object permanence
The idea that objects exist independently
Cruttenden (1974)
Found that adults can identify intonation better than children
Aitchinson (1987)
Created the theory that children label, package and build networks of new words
Labelling, Packaging, Network Building
Aitchinson's process of learning new words
2 months
the cooing phase starts at around
6 months
the babbling phase starts at around
12 months
the one-word phase starts at around
categorical overextension
when one word is used for all items in the same category
analogical overextension
when one word is used for all items that have similar properties