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Pituitary Gland


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Pituitary gland
controls the release of hormones from other endocrine organs
mammillary bodies, optic chiasm
Pituitary gland is located between the ____ and the _____.
sella turcica, infundibular stalk
Pituitary gland sits in the _____ and is attached to the hypothalamus by the _____.
adenohypophysis
the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
neurohypophysis
posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
adenohypophysis
contains the pars distalis, pars tuberalis, and pars intermedia
neurohypophysis
contains the pars nervosa, infundibular stalk or stem, and the median eminence
adenohypophysis
secretes protein and glycoprotein hormones that are stored in secretory granules
neurohypophysis
contains the axons of neurosecretory cells located in the hypothalamus
adenohypophysis
cells of the ___ are described as acidophils, basophils, and chromophobes based on hormones in their secretory vesicles
adenohypophysis cells
are more accurately described as somatotropes, thyrotropes, corticotropes, gonadotropes, and lactotropes
somatotropes
growth hormone secreting cells
thyrotropes
thyroid stimulating hormone secreting cells
corticotropes
ACTH secreting cells
gonadotropes
LH and FSH secreting cells
lactotropes
prolactin secreting cells
anterior lobe
over 90% of pituitary tumors are in the:
neuroendocrine secretion
secretory release by hypothalamic cells directly into the the blood
calcium influx
the release of hormones from neuroendocrine cells is triggered by ____ into terminals
Herring bodies
neuroendocrine axons contain clusters of neurosescretory vesicles known as:
pituicytes
___ are the only cell somata contained in the neurohypophysis besides endothelial cells, are glial-like cells
supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei
___ contain neurons that produce the tropic hormones oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone
supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei
___ contain axons that release their hormones into capillaries in the pars nervosa
pars nervosa
___ makes up the majority of the neurohypophysis and is the storage site for oxytocin and vasopressin
arcuate
The paraventricular and ___ nuclei release hypophysiotropic hormones from axon terminals to the median eminence
pars nervosa
___ receives blood supply via the inferior hypophyseal arteries which break up in to fenesterated capillaries, drained by hypophyseal veins
pars nervosa
Herring bodies are located in the ____
Colloid cysts
___ exist in the pars intermedia and are remnants of the outpouching of the oral epithelium
somatotropes
Tumor in the ____ can result in gigantism or acromegaly
hypophysiotropic
___ are hormones that effect hormone production in the adenohypophysis
superior hypophyseal arteries
The pars tuberalis, median eminence and infundibular stem receive arterial blood supply from ____
portal veins
The superior hypophyseal arteries break up into the primary capillary plexus which drains into:
pars distalis
the portal veins give rise to the secondary capillary plexus which supplies the ____.
peripheral endocrine glands
Hormones released into the secondary capillary plexus eventually join the systemic circulation to affect the ____.
acromegaly
When growth hormone tumor occurs after puberty, the symptoms present as:
gigantism
When a growth hormone tumor occurs before puberty, the symptoms present as: