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Thyroid Gland


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aortic arch
thyroid gland is located just above the ___
colloid
___ is surrounded by a single layer of simple cuboidal epithelial cells
thyroglobulin
storage form of the thyroid hormones thyroxine or T4 and T3
follicles
the thyroid gland stores the majority of its hormone products extracellularly in the ____
follicular cells
__ are the most numerous cells in the thyroid gland
microvilli
___ of the follicular cells extend into the colloid
thyroglobulin
principle cells produce ___ and release it into the follicular lumen by exocytosis
parafollicular
____ cells migrate from the neural crest
thyrocalcitonin
Parafollicular cells produce ___, which is stored in secretory vesicles
high
__ calcium levels stimulate release of calcitonin
Graves'
___ disease can cause enlargement of the thyroid gland
Cretanism
___ occurs when no thyroid hormone is produced during embryonic development, causing in complete development of the brain
iodide, iodine
Principal cells take up ___, oxidize it to ___, and release it into the follicular lumen
tyrosine
The iodine released into the follicular lumen iodinates ___ residues within the thyroglobulin
endocytosis
When stimulated by TSH, principal cells take up colloid by receptor-mediated ____
T3 and T4
Thyroglobulin is hydrolyzed and _____ are released into the adjacent capillaries
follicular epithelium
Parafollicular cells are located in the _____
TSH
The release of T3 and T4 is controlled by ___
shrink
If there is no TSH signal, the thyroid may ___
enlarge, columnar epithelium
If there is too much TSH, there is very little stored colloid, and the principle cells __ to become _____.
Goiter
Enlarged thyroid glands
lack of iodine
Goiters can be caused by ___
TSH
Lack of functioning thyroid hormones causes continual release of __