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Stereochemistry Definitions


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Absolute Configuration
Physically describes the orientation of atoms about a chiral center using R and S
Rectus
Latin for right used to descride a chiral centers Absolute Configuration
Sinister
Latin for left used to descride a chiral centers Absolute Configuration.
Relative Configuration
Two molecules can be said to have the same ______ _______ about a carbon if the differ by only one substituent and the others are identically orientated about the carbon
Observed Rotation
The direction and the degree to which a compound rotates plane-polarized light.
Specific Rotation
A standardised form of observed rotation that is arrived at through calculations with experimental parameters.
Dextrorotary
Compounds that rotate plane-polarized light clockwise is said to be + or ______?.
Levorotary
Compounds that rotate plane-polarized light anti-clockwise is said to be - or _____?.
Polarimeter
Screens out photons with all but one orientation of electric field.
Racemic Mixture
Chiral compounds containing equal amounts of both stereoisomers. Optically inactive.
Optically Inactive
Compounds with no chiral centers or has chiral centers but of a racemic mixture so doesn't result in rotated field.
Optically Active
A compound containing chiral carbons with no mirror image can rotate plane-polarized light, is said to be _____?
Enantiomers
"Stereoisomer compounds that are the mirror images of each other, must have opposite configurations at each chiral carbon."
Stereoisomers
Two molecules with the same molecular formula and same bond-to-bond connectivity but are not the same compound.
Enantiomers
_______ rotate plane-polarized light in opposite directions to an equal degree.
Resolution
The seperation of enatiomers
Diastereomers
"Stereoisomer compounds that are not the mirror images of each other."
Epimers
Diastereomers that differ at only one chiral carbon
Anomers
Names of diastereomers formed when a ring closure occurs at the epimeric carbon.
Alpha
The anomer label of glucose when the anomeric carbon hydroxyl group is in OPPOSITE direction to the methyl group
Beta
The anomer label of glucose when the anomeric carbon hydroxyl group is in SAME direction to the methyl group
Meso
Compounds that have plane of symmetry that divides centers into mirror image halves of each other. Are achiral and so optically inactive
2^n
Maximum number of optically active isomers is related to n chiral carbons