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More money, education, age
What makes people more likely to vote?
normally cumulative, with early beliefs retained
Political learning is
Low level of political efficacy
Citizens who believe that their votes will have no effect on the outcome of an election
Social Issues
Religious differences affect our voting patterns with
Voting in Presidential Elections
most common form of political activity undertaken by United States citizens
Sampling Error
Accuracy of a poll is described by
most important role in the political socialization of children is played by
A relatively small proportion of people who are chosen as representative of the whole
Split-ticket voting
Voting for Democrats and Republicans on same ballot
Ban abortion, lower taxes, less government spending, less regulation
Political Socialization
The process by which people acquire their political orientations
government activism in economic activity, support civil liberties, and more funding for the poor
Critical Elections
When groups of voters have changed their traditional patterns of party loyalties.
They turned out at a lower rate than the general population
When 18 to 21 year olds received the right to vote in 1971
do not vote
In most elections, Most Americans
Selecting a random sample
most important for getting an accurate measure of public opinion in a survey
Exit poll
A poll that asks voters at randomly selected voting places whom they voted for so that election results can be predicted more quickly
Less government control, legalize marijuana
equality of opportunity
Americans believe in ___________ not equality of outcome
a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds
scientific polling
makes use of statistical information during the process of selecting participants randomly
rational choice voting
voting in their best interest, supporting the candidate whose platform will give them the most favorable outcomes
retrospective voting
voting made after taking into consideration factors like the performance of a political party, an officeholder, and/or the administration.
Prospective voting
voting based on how a citizen thinks a candidate will act and perform if elected to office.
Party-line voting
Voting along with the preferences of the party
statistical data relating to the population and particular groups within it.
political efficacy
the citizens' faith and trust in government and their belief that they can understand and influence political affairs.
hi-tech politics
A politics in which the behavior of citizens and policymakers and the political agenda itself are increasingly shaped by technology.
mass media
Television, radio, newspaper, magazines, the Internet, and other means of popular communication.
media event
Events that are purposely staged for the media and that are significant just because the media are there.
press conferences
Meetings of public officials with reporters.
investigative reporting
The use of in-depth reporting to unearth scandals, scams, and schemes, at times putting reporters in adversarial relationships with political leaders.
print media
Newspapers and magazines, as compared with electronic media.
Media programming on cable TV (e.g., on MTV, ESPN, or C-SPAN) or the Internet that is focused on a particular interest and aimed at a particular audience, in contrast to broadcasting.
Specific locations from which news frequently emanates, such as Congress or the White House.
trial balloons
Intentional news leaks for the purpose of assessing the political reaction.
sound bites
Short video clips of approximately 10 seconds. Typically, they are all that is shown from a politicans speech on the nightly television news.
talking head
A shot of a person's face talking directly to the camera. Because such shots are visually unstimulating, the major networks rarely show politicians talking for very long.
policy agenda
The issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people actively involved in politics at the time.
policy entrepreneurs
People who invest their political capital in an issue. According to John Kingdon, a policy entrepreneur could be in or out of government, in elected or appointed positions, in interest groups or research organizations.
horse race journalism
The focus on polls rather than on positions of the candidates.
photo opportunities
Being at an event or meeting with a person that could increase popularity.
agenda setting
What the media covers seems more important