Level 2
Level 1

Noun cases


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Absolutive case
subject of intransitive verbs and the direct object of transitive verbs. Also definite marker
р
absolutive case ending
щIалэ
boy
щIалэр
the boy
йоджэ
he reads (intransitive)
щIалэр йоджэ
The boy is reading.
тхылъ
book
тхылъыр
the book
къэсщтащ
I picked it up
сэ тхылъыр къэсщтащ
I picked the book up.
Ergative-oblique
subject of transitive verbs and indirect object of intransitive verbs
м
Ergative case ending
бзылъхугъэ
woman
бзылъхугъэм
the woman (erg)
джанэ
shirt
джанэр
the shirt
егъэкъабзэ
she cleans it
бзылъхугъэм джанэр егъэкъабзэ
the woman cleans the shirt
щӏалэр тхылъым йоджэ
the boy reads the book
Instrumental-Directional Case
instrument used, direction of action
кӏэ
Indefinite instrumental case ending
мкӏэ
Definite instrumental case ending
къэрэндащ
pencil
къэрэндащкӏэ
with a pencil
сотхэ
I write
сэ къэрэндащкӏэ сотхэ
I write using a pencil
адыгэбзэ
Circassian language
адыгэбзэкӏэ
in Circassian
мэпсалъэ
he is speaking
щӏалэр адыгэбзэкӏэ мэпсалъэ
The boy is speaking Circassian.
гъуэгу
road
гъуэгумкӏэ
the direction of the road
унэ
house
унэмкӏэ
the direction of the house
хы
sea
хымкӏэ
the direction of the sea
къуажэ
village
къуажэмкӏэ
the direction of the village
докӏуэ
we go
дэ къуажэмкӏэ докӏуэ
We go in the direction of the village
нобэди
today
еджапӏэ
school
еджапӏэмкӏэ
the direction of the school
ныщӏыхьэ
stop by!
нобэди еджапӏэмкӏэ ныщӏыхьэ
come to our school today
Adverbial case
indicates the manner in which the verb was done
профессор
professor
профессорэу
as a professor
лӏыр
the man
мэлажэ
he works
лӏыр профессорэу мэлажэ
the man works as a professor