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Science-Sexual reproduction in animals(English-Mea


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Extinct
No longer exists.
Reproduce
When organisms reproduce, they make more organisms like themselves.
Egg cell
The female sex cell (gamete).
Endangered
When a type of organism is in danger of ceasing to exist.
External fertilisation
When fertilisation happens outside the bodies of the parents.
Fertilisation
Fusing of a male gamete with a female gamete.
Fertilised egg cell
What is produced when a sperm cell fuses with an egg cell.
Fuse
When two things join together to become one.
Gamete
A cell used for sexual reproduction.
Internal fertilisation
When fertilisation happens inside the body of a parent.
Offspring
The new organisms produced by reproduction.
Sex cell
Another word for a gamete.
Sexual reproduction
Reproduction that needs two individuals to produce a new organism of the same type.
Sperm cell
The male sex cell (gamete).
Adapted
When something has special features that allow it to carry out its function.
Bladder
Organ that stores urine.
Cervix
Ring of muscle at the bottom of the uterus in females.
Cilia
Small hairs on the surface of some cells.
Circumcision
Removal of the foreskin.
Fallopian tube
Another term for ‘oviduct’.
Foreskin
A covering of skin protecting the head of the penis.
Glands
Special tissues that make and release substances. The glands in the male reproductive system add a special liquid to the sperm cells to make semen.
Menopause
When the ovaries in women stop releasing egg cells.
Ovary
Female reproductive organ. Produces egg cells.
Oviduct
Carries egg cells from the ovaries to the uterus in females. Fertilisation happens here.
Puberty
Time during which big physical changes happen in the body.
Reproductive organs
Organs used in sexual reproduction.
Reproductive system
All the reproductive organs.
Scrotum
Bag of skin containing the testes in males.
Semen
Mixture of sperm and special fluids released by males during ejaculation.
Sperm duct
Tube that carries sperm cells from the testes to the urethra.
Testis
Male reproductive organ. Produces sperm cells. Plural = testes.
Urethra
Tube that carries sperm cells from the testes and urine from the bladder.
Uterus
Organ in females in which a baby develops.
Vagina
Tube in females leading from the cervix to the outside. The penis is placed here during sexual intercourse.
Amnion
Bag containing amniotic fluid.
Amniotic fluid
Liquid surrounding the growing embryo and protecting it.
Ejaculation
When semen is pumped out of a man’s penis.
Embryo
Tiny new human life that grows by cell division from a fertilised egg cell.
Erection
When the penis becomes stiff.
Implantation
When an embryo sinks into the lining of the uterus.
Placenta
Attached to the uterus wall, this takes oxygen and food out of the mother’s blood and puts waste materials into the mother’s blood.
Pregnant
When a female animal has an embryo growing inside her uterus.
Sexual intercourse
Or ‘making love’, ‘having sex’, during which semen is ejaculated into the end of the vagina.
Umbilical cord
Carries food, oxygen and waste between the placenta and the growing embryo or fetus.
IVF
A procedure in which egg cells are taken from a woman and fertilised in a dish outside the woman’s body. The embryo develops and is then placed inside her.
Sperm count
The number of sperm cells in a certain volume of semen.
Surrogate mother
A human or animal in whose uterus an embryo grows but which is not an embryo made using one of her egg cells.
Test-tube baby
Baby born using IVF.
Antibodies
Substances produced by white blood cells that help to fight micro-organisms that might cause diseases.
Contractions
The uterus muscles squeezing.
Fetus
An embryo is known as a fetus once it has developed a full set of organs.
Gestation period
The length of time from fertilisation to birth.
Labour
Labour starts when contractions start in the uterus and ends when the afterbirth has come out.
Mammary glands
Glands contained in the breasts of women that produce milk after childbirth.
Navel
Scar left by the cord. Often called the ‘belly button’.
Ultrasound scan
An ultrasound scanner uses sound to create a picture of what is inside someone’s body.
Sex hormones
Natural chemicals released in our bodies that control the menstrual cycle and puberty.
Acne
Spots on the skin.
Adolescence
Time when physical and emotional changes occur in teenagers.
Menstrual cycle
Series of events lasting about a month, happening in the female reproductive system. The cycle causes ovulation and the lining of the uterus is replaced.
Ovulation
Releasing of an egg cell from an ovary.
Lifecycle
The series of changes in an organism during its life.