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Fuel of early industrial revolution
steam engine
Provided power for many factories and forms of transportation
Middle class
Group that generally owned and managed businesses
industrial working class
Factory workers who were often underpaid and had long working hours
Labor Unions
groups of workers organizing for higher wages
belief that workers should unite to overthrow the rich and share everything in common
New preferred material for clothing
Bird droppings that are used for fertilizer, which became valuable during this time
Product that began to be commercially produced in South America, India, and Southeast Asia and used for balls, containers, gloves, balloons, and tires
Narcotic raised in India and other parts of the British Empire and largely sold to China
Fast transport that made traveling by land considerably cheaper in the 1800s, but required large investments in capital
Boats that could travel straight and upriver, but required coal.
communication that could be done in code over hundreds of miles
Artificial rivers for transportation like in Egypt and western Pennsylvania and New York
Belgian Congo
Southwestern country in Africa controlled by King Leopold of Belgium that was marked by cruelty towards the native inhabitants in producing rubber and other raw materials
Opium Wars
two wars in the mid-19th century involving China and the British Empire over the British trade of opium and China's sovereignty.
practice of using capitalism, globalization and cultural imperialism to influence a developing country instead of the previous colonial methods of direct military control (imperialism) or indirect political control
policy or ideology of extending a nation's rule over foreign nations, often by military force or by gaining political and economic control of other areas.
Settler colonies
distinct type of colonialism that functions through the replacement of indigenous populations with an invasive settler society that, over time, develops a distinctive identity and sovereignty.
Spanish-American War
War that made America an imperial power
Meiji Japan
an era of Japanese history which extended from October 23, 1868 to July 30, 1912.[1] This era represents the first half of the Empire of Japan, during which period the Japanese people moved from being an isolated feudal society at risk of colonisation by European powers to the new paradigm of a modern, industrialised nationstate and emergent great power, influenced by Western scientific, technological, philosophical, political, legal, and aesthetic ideas.
Cherokee Nation
Native American tribe that was displaced in spite of legal agreements and protection of the Supreme Court
Zulu Kingdom
was a monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of the Indian Ocean from the Tugela River in the south to Pongola River in the north. Built by the king, Shaka.
Balkan states
Bulgaria, Serbia, Coatia, Bosnia, Macedonia, Albania, and Slovenia. Countries that were between Turkish and Austro-Hungarian Empire
Sepoy Rebellion
was a major, but ultimately unsuccessful, uprising in India in 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.[3][4] The rebellion began on 10 May 1857 in the form of a mutiny of sepoys of the Company's army in the garrison town of Meerut, 40 miles northeast of Delhi (now Old Delhi). It then erupted into other mutinies and civilian rebellions chiefly in the upper Gangetic plain and central India,[a][5][b][6] though incidents of revolt also occurred farther north and east.[c][7] The rebellion posed a considerable threat to British power in that region,[d][8] and was contained only with the rebels' defeat in Gwalior on 20 June 1858.
Social Darwinism
the application of the evolutionary concept of natural selection to human society. The term itself emerged in the 1880s, and it gained widespread currency when used after 1944 by opponents of these ways of thinking. The majority of those who have been categorized as social Darwinists did not identify themselves by such a label.
was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, the "Century of Philosophy"
social contract
is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment and usually concerns the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual.
Declaration of Independence
When America split from England because they felt England was violating the colonists' rights
Declaration of the Rights of Man
influenced by the doctrine of "natural right", the rights of man are held to be universal: valid at all times and in every place, pertaining to human nature itself. It became the basis for a nation of free individuals protected equally by the law. It is included in the beginning of the constitutions of both the Fourth French Republic (1946) and Fifth Republic (1958) and is still current. Inspired by the Enlightenment philosophers, the Declaration was a core statement of the values of the French Revolution and had a major impact on the development of freedom and democracy in Europe and worldwide.
Jamaica letter
Bolívar began by analyzing what until that time had been considered the historical successes in the struggle for liberty in the Americas. In general terms, it was a balance of force achieved by the patriots in the years from 1810 to 1815. In the middle part of the document are expounded the causes and reasons that justified the "Spanish Americans" in their decision for independence, followed by a call to Europe for it to co-operate in the work to liberate the Latin American peoples. In the third and final part, he speculated and debated on the destiny of Mexico, Central America, New Granada, Venezuela, Río de la Plata, Chile, and Peru. Finally, Bolívar ends his reflections with an imprecation that he would repeat until his death: the necessity for the union of the countries of the Americas. Even though the Carta de Jamaica was nominally addressed to Henry Cullen, it is clear that its fundamental objective was to gain the attention of the most powerful liberal nation of the 19th century, Britain, with the aim that it would decide to involve itself in American independence. However, when Britain finally responded to Bolívar's call, he preferred the help of Haiti.
abolition of slavery
England helped end the slave trade with its navy, Spanish speaking countries ended slavery after their revolutions, US ended slavery after Civil War, with Brazil eventually ending slavery
end of serfdom
Serfdom ended in France with the revolution and in Russia with Alexander II
Citizens began to have pride in their country, language, and culture
Franco-Prussian War
Prussian defeat of France that led to the creation of Germany
Became a country in 1860s thanks to the efforts of Guiseppe Mazzini and Guiseppe Garibaldi
Emilio Aguinaldo
Filipino leader who tried to get independence. First from the Spanish and then Americans.
Jose de San Martin
Leader of Argentine independence
a member of the princely and military castes of the former Hindu kingdom of Maharashtra in central India.
Taiping Rebellion
was a massive rebellion or total civil war in China that was waged from 1850 to 1864 between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom under Hong Xiuquan.
American Revolution
War between American colonists and England for independence from 1775-1783
Haitian Revolution
was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign nation of Haiti. It began on 22 August 1791, and ended in 1804 with the former colony's independence. It involved blacks, mulattoes, French, Spanish, and British participants—with the ex-slave Toussaint L'Ouverture emerging as Haiti's most charismatic hero. It was the only slave uprising that led to the founding of a state which was both free from slavery, and ruled by non-whites and former captives. It is now widely seen as a defining moment in the history of racism in the Atlantic World.
Simon Bolivar
the Liberator, was a Venezuelan military and political leader who led the secession of what are currently the states of Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Panama from the Spanish Empire.
Turner's Rebellion
was a slave rebellion that took place in Southampton County, Virginia, in August 1831, led by Nat Turner. Rebel slaves killed from 55 to 65 people, at least 51 being white. The rebellion was put down within a few days, but Turner survived in hiding for more than two months afterwards. The rebellion was effectively suppressed at Belmont Plantation on the morning of August 23, 1831.
Maroon societies
were bands of communities or fugitive slaves who had succeeded in establishing a society of their own in some remote areas, where they could not easily be surprised by soldiers or slave catchers.
Boxer Rebellion
a Chinese secret organization called the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists led an uprising in northern China against the spread of Western and Japanese influence there. It was crushed and European country's extracted many concessions.
Ghost Dance
a North American Indian religious cult of the second half of the 19th century, based on the performance of a ritual dance that, it was believed, would drive away white people and restore the traditional lands and way of life. Advocated by the Sioux chief Sitting Bull, the cult was central to the uprising that was crushed at the Battle of Wounded Knee.
Xhosa Cattle Killing
African people largely under British control began to sacrifice cattle in order to bring back their ancestors.
a political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.
a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives.
a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership of the means of production and workers' self-management, as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Less government and free trade
Seneca Falls Resolutions
Conference that pushed for Women's rights like suffrage
Gouges Declaration of Rights of Women and Female Citizen
French feminist document based on French document asserting right of man and the citizen
Wollstonecraft’s Vindication of the Rights of Women
wrote to advocate for the education of women
migrant workers
laborers were brought in to parts of the English Empire to work plantations and provide other needed labor
Lebanese merchants
diaspora of merchants to the Americas from the small middle eastern country
Chinese exclusion act
America refused to allow Chinese immigrants into the United States
White Australia policy
Australia tried to ban Asian immigrants to the country