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Petrol Emissions

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Palladium, Platinum, Rhodium
Name the 3 precious metals in the Catalytic Convertor A->Z
Oxidise, Reduce
Platinum is used to ___ and ___
Palladium is used to …
Rhodium is used to …
2, 3
Types of Cat ___ and ___ -way
A 2-way Cat Oxidises ____ to ___. Oxidises ___ to ____and ___
A 3-way Cat Reduces ____ to ___. Oxidises ____ to ___. Oxidises ___ to ___ and ___.
Titania, Zirconia, Wideband
Types of lambda sensors starting with oldest ___ ___ ___
0.3, 0.6, 100
Oxygen sensor response test : from ___V to ___V should switch in ___ms
1, 1
Oxygen sensor switching at 2,500 rpm should be at least ___Hz or ___ Period per second
Black, Blue, White, Grey
O2 sensor wiring. The signal will be ___ or ___ . The ground wire will be ___ or ___
Oxygen Storage Test, Greater
___ ___ ___ can tells us about the efficiency of the convertors ability to store oxygen. The ___ the time delay the better the ability of the convertor to store oxygen
STFT, Lean
OST : we drive the ___ to its ___ trim limit using propane, around -30. Then we measure the time delay between the pre and post O2 sensor patterns after removing propane supply.
Excess, Lean
If Lambda is > 1 then there is ___ oxygen, ___ fuel mix
Oxygen, Rich
If lambda is < 1 then there is not enough ___, ___ fuel mix
Unburnt Fuel
HC is a measure of ___ ___
CO is the ___ factor, how rich the engine runs
Lambda of 1 equals a balanced air / fuel mix of 14.7:1 which is called ____
Same, Hole, Secondary Air
Lambda is the ___ before or after the convertor and is unaffected by combustion. Only thing that can cause a Lambda reading to lie is an exhaust ___ or a ___ ___ supply.
Lambda is calculated by comparing the number of oxygen atoms to carbon and hydrogen atoms available using The ___ Equation.
Oxidised, Above
HC and CO are ___ by the convertor more efficiently when lambda is ___ 1
Reduced, Below
Nox is ___ by the convertor more efficiently when lambda is ___ 1
Catalytic Convertor, P0420
Any exhaust leaks between the Pre and Post O2 sensors may show up as a faulty ___ ___. DTC ___
Sulfur, Dioxide, Hydrogen
___ in the fuel is normally convertor to odourless sulfur ___ in the cat otherwise it may be released as "rotten egg" smelling ___ sulfide
Sulfide, Efficient
Newer converters may produce more hydrogen ___ due to being more ___
Lean, Sulfites
___ running will cause the convertor to produce more sulfur dioxide out the tailpipe and sulfites to build up in the convertor.
Built up sulphites in the converter can became Hydrogen Sulfide during ___ running conditions ie accelerating from lights
New, Fuel, Hot
Hydrogen sulfide can be caused by a ___ catalytic convertor, bad ___ mixture, engine too ___, producing a strong "rotten egg" smell.
Injector, Reduce, Oxidise
The computer flip/flops the air/fuel mix by adjusting ___ ontime, allowing rich/lean conditions so the convertor can ___ Nox and ___ HC and CO
Secondary Air Injection
___ ___ ___ cause the converter to light off sooner, heat up quicker, as the oxidising process it promotes generates heat in the converter
Always check the SAI valve when replacing pump, if any ___ is present between valve and pump then always replace valve
Condensate, Closing
SAI pumps can fail due to exhaust ___ that travels back to it from a faulty SAI control valve not ___ correctly
Secondary air injection allows for the convertor to better oxidise HC and CO during ___ as the engine runs in an enrichment condition