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Memory Address
A specific location in memory where instructions or data are stored
Assignment
The process of giving a value to a variable or constant
Constant
An item of data whose value does not change
Variable
An item of data whose value could change while the program is being run
Declaration
The process of defining variables and constants in terms of their name and datatype
Datatype
Determines what sort of data are being stored and how it will be handled by the program
Integer
Any whole positive or negative number including zero
Pointer
A data item that identifies a particular element in a data structure - normally the front or rear
Array
A set of related data items stored under a single identifier. Can work on multiple dimensions
Element
A single value within set or list - Also called a member
Record
One line if a text file
Selection
The principle of choosing what action to take based on a certain criteria
Nesting
Placing one set of instructions within another set of instructions
Iteration
The principle of repeating processes
Indefinite Iteration
A process that repeats until a certain condition is met
Definite iteration
A process that repeats a set number of times
Loop
A repeated process
Sequence
The principle of putting the correct instructions in the right order within a program
Arithmetic operation
Common expressions such as +,-,/,*
Rounding
Reducing the number of digits used to represent a number while maintaining a value that is approximately equivalent
Truncation
The process of cutting off a number after a certain number of characters or decimal places
Random Number Generation
A function what produces a completely random number
Pseudo-random Number Generator
Common in programming languages, a function that produces a random number that is not 100% random
Relational Operations
Expressions that compare two values such as equal to or greater than
Boolean Operations
Expressions that result in a True or False value
String Handling Functions
Actions that can be carried out on sequences of characters
Character Code
A binary representation of a particular letter, number or special character
Event
Something that happens when a program is being run
Subroutine
A named block of code designed to carry out specific task
Subprogram
Another term for a subroutine
Routine
Another term for a subroutine
Local Variable
A variable that is available only in specified subroutines and functions
Global Variable
A variable that is available anywhere in the program
Module
A number of subroutines that form part of a program
Function
A subroutine that returns a value
Parameter
Data being passed into a subroutine
Argument
An item of data being passed to a subroutine
Block Interface
Code that describes the data being passed from one subroutine to another
Exception Handling
The process of dealing with events that cause the current subroutine to stop
Procedural Programming Languages
Languages where the programmer specifies the steps that must be carried out in order to achieve a result
Imperative Programming Languages
Languages based on giving the computer commands or procedures to follow
Hierarchy Chart
A diagram that shows the design of a system from the top down
Structure Chart
Similar to a hierarchy chart with the addition of showing how data are passed around the system
Top-down Approach
When designing systems it means that you start at the top of the process and work your down
Flowchart
A diagram using standard symbols that describes a process or system
System Flowchart
A diagram that shows individual processes within a system
Pseudo-Code
A method of writing code that does not require knowledge of a particular programming languages
Trace Table
A method of recording the result of each step that takes places when dry running code
Encapsulation
The concept of putting properties, methods and data in one object
Properties
The defining features of an object or class in terms of its data
Method
The code or routines contained within a class
Class
Defines the properties and methods of a group of similar objects
Object
A specific instance of a class
Inheritance
The concept that properties and methods in one class can be shared with a subclass
Class Diagrams
A way of representing the relationship between classes
Instantiation
The process of creating an object from a class
Polymorphism
The ability of different types of data to be manipulated with the same method
Overriding
Where a method described in the subclass takes precedence over a method with the same name in the base class
Composition Aggregation
Creating an object that contains other objects , and will cease to exist if the containing object is destroyed
Association Aggregation
Creating an object that contains other objects, which can continue to exist even if the containing object is destroyed