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Serial Transmission
Data is transmitted one bit at a time down a single wire
Parallel Transmission
Data is transmitted several bits at a time using multiple wires
Bandwidth
A measure of the capacity of the channel down which the data is being sent, measured in hertz
Bit rate
The rate at which data is actually being transmitted, measured in bits per second
Latency
The time delay that occurs when transmitting data between devices
Asynchronous Data Transmission
Data is transmitted between two devices that do not share a common clock signal
Start Bit
A bit used to indicate the start of a unit of data in asynchronous data transmission
Stop bit
A bit used to indicate the end of a unit of data in asynchronous data transmission
Synchronous Data Transmission
Data is transmitted where the pulse of the clock of the sending and receiving device are in time with each other, the devices may share a common clock
Protocols
A set of rules
TCP/IP
A set of protocols for all TCP/IP network transmissions
HTTP
HyperText Transfer Protocol - The protocol to define the identification, request and transfer of multimedia content over the internet
FTP
A protocol for handling file uploads and downloads
Network
Devices that are connected together to share data and resources
Network Interface Card
A card that enables devices to connect to a network
Network Topology
The layout of a network usually in terms of its conceptual layout rather than physical layout
Local Area Network
A network over a small geographical distance - usually on one site and typically used by one organisation
Wide Area Network
A network spread over a large geographical distance
Star topology
A way of connecting devices in a network where each workstation has a dedicated cable to a central computer or switch
Bus Topology
A network layout that uses one main data cable as a backbone to transmit data
Physical Topology
The wat in which devices in a network are physically connected
Logical Topology
The conceptual way in which data is transmitted around a network
Client-Server
A network methodology where one computer has the main processing power and storage and the other computers act as clients requesting services from the server
Peer-to-Peer
A network methodology were all devices in a network share resources between them rather than having a server
MAC
Media Access Control - A unique code that identifies a particular device on a network
Request to Send/Clear to Send
A protocol to ensure data does not collide when being transmitted on wireless networks
Service Set Identifier
A locally unique 32-character code that identifies a device on a device a wireless network
WiFi Protected Access
A protocol for encrypting data and ensuring security on WiFi networks
Internet
A global network of networks
Uniform Resource Locator
A method for identifying the location of resources on the Internet
Domain Name
The recognisable name of a domain on the Internet
Internet Protocol address
A unique number that identifies devices on a network
Domain name server
A server that contains domain names and associated IP addresses
Port
Used to identify a particular process or application on a network
POP3
A protocol for receiving emails
Secure Shell (SSH) protocol
A protocol for remote access to computers
Domain Name Server System
A system of connected domain name servers that provides the IP address of every website on the internet
Port Forwarding
A method of routing data through additional ports
Socket
An endpoint of a communication flow across a computer network
Subnet Masking
A method of dividing a network into multiple smaller networks
Gateway
A node on a network that acts as a connection point to another network with different protocols
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
A set of rules for allocating locally unique IP addresses to devices as they connect to a network
Internet Registries
Organisations who allocate and administer domain names and IP addresses
Regional Internet Registry
One of five large organisations that allocate and administer domain names and IP addresses in different parts of the world
Routing
The process of directing packets of data between networks
Packet Switching
A method for transmitting packets of data via the quickest route on a network
Checksum
A method of checking the integrity of data by calculating a sum based on the data being sent
Firewall
Hardware or software for protecting against unauthorised access to a network
Packet Filtering
A technique for examining the contents of packets on a network and rejecting them if they do not conform to certain rules
Stateful Inspection
A technique for examining the contents of packets on a network and rejecting them if they do not form part of a recognised communication
Symmetric Encryption
Where the sender and reciever both use the same key to encrypt and decrypt data
Asymmetric Encryption
Where a public and private key are used to encrypt and decrypt data
Private Key
A code used to encrypt/decrypt data that is only known by one user but is mathematically linked to a corresponding key
Public Key
A code used to encrypt/decrypt data that can be made public and is linked to a corresponding private key
Digital Certificate
A method of ensuring that an encrypted message is from a trusted source as they have a certificate from a certification authority
Certification Authority
A trusted organisation that provides digital certificates and signatures
Digital Signature
A method of ensuring that an encrypted message is from a tructed source as they have a unique, encrypted signature verified by a Certification Authority
Trojan
Malware that is hidden within another file on your computer
Virus
A generic term for malware where the program attaches itself to another file in order to infect a computer
Worm
Malware or a type of virus that replicates itself and spreads around a computer system. It does not need to be attached to another file in order to infect a computer
Port
An addressable location on a network that links to a process or application
HTTP
A protocol for transmitting and displaying web pages
Client-Server Model
A way of implementing a connection between computers where one computer makes use orf resources of another computer
HTTPS
HTTP with encryption
SMTP
A protocol for sending emails
POP3
A protocol for recieving emails
Email Server
A dedicated computer on a network for handling email
Web Server
A dedicated computer on a network for handling web content
Web Browser
An application for viewing web pages
Application Program Interface
A set of subroutines that enable one program to interface with another program
Websocket Protocol
A set of rules that creates a persistent connection between two computers on a network to enable real-time collaboration
Packet
A block of data being transmitted
Message
The name given to a packet of data being transmitted using the websocket protocol
CRUD
An acronym that explains the main functions of a database: Create, Read, Update, Delete
SQL
A programming language used to manage data within a relational database
REST
Representation State Transfer - A methodology for implementing a networked database
JSON
JavaScript Object Notation - A standard format for transmitting data
XML
Extensible Markup Language - A method of defining data formats for data that will be transmitted around a network
Client-Server Database
A way of implementing a database where the database is put into a server and various users can access it from their workstations
Thin Client
In a network where one computer contains the majority of resources, processing power and storage capacity, which it distributes to other clients
Thick Client
In a network where resources, processing power and storage capacity are distributed between the server and the client computers
Terminal
A computer hat has little or no processing power or storage capacity used as a client in a thin client network