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Level 15

Gastroenterology (drug side effects)


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diarrhoea, constipation, flatulance, nausea and vomiting
Antacids
diarrhoea, headache, abdo pain
Proton pump inhibitors
interstitial nephritis
Proton pump inhibitors (rare)
increased risk of osteoporosis
Proton pump inhibitors (chronic use)
avoid in paralytic ileus
Antispasmodics
anti-autonomic effects (constipation, tachycardia, urinary retention, blurred vision, dry mouth)
Hyoscine
glucocorticoid side effects
Hydrocortisone
diarrhoea, nausea, headache, rash
Aminosalicylates
blood disorders (agranulocytosis, aplastic anaemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia)
Aminosalicylates (rare)
SLE-like syndrome
Aminosalicylates (rare)
headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, malaise
Immunomodulators
increased risk of infection
Immunomodulators
abdo pain, dizziness, drowsiness
Loperamide
anti-autonomic effects (constipation, tachycardia, urinary retention, blurred vision)
Co-phenotrope
precipitate toxic megacolon in ulcerative colitis
Antimotility drugs
flatulence, distension
Bulk-forming laxatives
flatulence, abdo pain
Osmotic laxatives
significant sodium load (use with caution in electrolyte and fluid disturbance, heart failure)
Macrogols
abdo pain
Stimulant laxatives
diarrhoea and related metabolic effects
Stimulant laxatives (chronic use)
avoid in intestinal obstruction
Stimulant laxatives
extrapyramidal side effects, anticholinergic effects
Antiemetic (dopamine antagonists)
headache, constipation
Antiemetic (5-HT3 receptor antagonists)
drowsiness, anticholinergic effects
Antiemetic (antihistamine, antimuscarinic)